A water heater is a device that is used at homes to heat water for bathing. It works on the principle of converting electrical energy into heat energy. The following components make up water heaters: tank, dip tube, shut-off valve, heat-out pipe, thermostat, heating elements, drain valve, pressure relief valve, and a sacrificial anode rod. It is important to underscore that all the components should work in a coordinated manner for the device to function.
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Modern water heating devices are designed with efficient systems of saving energy. For example, setting a water heater to relatively low temperatures could greatly save energy. Many manufacturers recommend that the devices should have temperature settings within a range of 49oC to 60oC.
The following discussion relies on the components shown in Figure 1 in this paper.
The inner portion of a water-heating device is made of a heavy metal material that contains a protective liner. In most cases, a tank can hold about 151 to 227 liters of water. The exterior part of a tank is composed of an insulating substance, such as polyurethane foam. In addition, an outermost layer gives the device more insulting properties.
This part is at the top of a tank. Water enters a water heater through the component.
This is located outside the heating device. Its main function is to stop water flowing into a water heater when a tank is full. Thus, it is essential to avoid water wastage that could result from overflows.
Once the water is heated, it is critical to allow it to exit the heating unit. Thus, this component is important to act as a channel through heated water flows out of the device. If heated water does not flow out, then this could result in some levels of inefficiencies.
This is used to control temperatures within a water heater. In fact, when a maximum temperature value is attained, the component leads to a disconnection of electrical circuits, which are only reconnected when temperatures reduce remarkably.
Heating elements are contained within a tank. They are the main components that are used to heat water. They conduct electrical energy and convert it into heat energy by becoming red hot.
This is situated near the bottom of the external part of a tank. It is used to achieve three goals. First, it empties a tank when it is necessary to replace the elements. Second, it is crucial to remove sediments. Third, it is used when moving a tank to another location.
Pressure relief valve
This component is utilized to maintain pressure in a device within safe limits. It is important to note that excess pressure could result in damage and altered heating efficiencies.
Sacrificial anode rod
The purpose of the component is to retard corrosion. It is made of magnesium or aluminium.
Water heaters work by converting electrical energy into heat energy, which is utilized to make cold water hot. A standard water-heating device has the following components, which function in a coordinated manner: heating elements, tank, dip tube, drain valve, heat-out pipe, a sacrificial anode rod, thermostat, pressure relief valve, and shut-off valve. It is critical to emphasize that safe limits of temperature and pressure are maintained in a water heater.