Key features of the program
- Aerobic fitness or cardiovascular endurance, which is the ability of the lungs and the heart to coordinate effectively in supplying all body parts with sufficient oxygen.
- Muscle strength or strength training, which refer places emphasis on the fitness of muscles and the amount of power exerted by muscles in one effort.
- Muscular endurance training, which determines the amount of muscle activity before fatigue develops.
- The program focused on the flexibility and stretching, which refer to the extent of expression by all body joints.
- Body composition, which covers organs, bones as well as the fat and lead muscle content.
- Core exercises for other core muscles such as in the pelvis, abdomen, and lower back, which coordinate upper and lower body movements and protect the back.
- Balance training
Why these key features were emphasized
Aerobic fitness or cardiovascular endurance is a major feature of the program because the exercise supports deep and faster breathing, which is the best way of increasing the supply of oxygen to the body. Muscle strength or strength training more than twice in a week improves muscle fitness and increases bone strength in addition to maintenance of the muscle mass in programs for losing weight. Muscle endurance training helps in the development of muscle able to perform much activity without fatiguing.
We will write a custom Assessment on Sport Strength and Flexibility Program specifically for you
301 certified writers online
Body composition in the program helps in understanding the fat and muscle ratios as well as organs and bones, which helps in the design of effective approaches for individuals. Core exercises are key aspects in making the program well-rounded in addition to helping the individual coordinate well between the upper and lower body parts.
Flexibility and stretching go together, and they help in the performance of exercises such as dancing and they also improve the extent of joint motion and developing a better posture. Balance training is important to avoid falls and fractures, especially for older adults.
Benefits of strength training
Other than looking good and feeling great, strength training comes with several benefits for individuals, including strengthening immunity and slowing the aging process. The training reduces the chances of developing heart diseases and diabetes, including the symptom of diseases. Strength training enhances lung, and heart efficiency helps in the circulation of oxygenated blood to the body. Through strength training, individuals lower resting blood pressure.
The training improves balance, increases bone density, and reduces the chances of developing colon cancer. Strength training improves energy levels and helps in burning calories, which may be harmful to the body. Other benefits include “prevention of lower back pain, eases the pain of arthritis, improves flexibility, eases the performance of physical tasks, relieves stress, improves self-esteem, guards against injury and improves the quality of life” (Christian, 2011, p. 140).
Benefits of flexibility training
Flexibility training is at the core of training programs because of the associated benefits. Flexibility training makes the body achieve an ideal muscle balance in addition to increasing the range of motion for all body joints. The training helps in relieving joint stress and decreasing excessive muscle tension, which hinders training programs.
Flexibility training improves the “extensibility of the musculotendinous junction and maintaining the normal functional length of all muscle” (Clark, Lucett & Corn, 2008, p. 147). The training improves overall function and ensures optimal neuromuscular efficiency in addition to supporting the performance of activities that need more flexibility, such as dancing and aerobics (Holt & Pelham, 2008).
Before implementing the strength and flexibility training program, pre-tests are carried out to determine the functional capacities and health risks. In this regard, the strength tests include determining muscle endurance, muscle power, and flexibility assessment. The isokinetic dynamometry testing helps in assessing muscle endurance based on static or dynamic strength.
“Isokinetic dynamometry involves the assessment of maximal muscle tension throughout a range of joint motion at a constant angular velocity…and the test measures the peak rotation force, or torque” (Howley & Thompson, 2007, p. 183), which helps in the conduction of the program.
Using dynamic testing, participants do exercises that involve body movements such as pushups and leg press as well as the application of external forces such as bench press and lap pull-down. 1-repetition maximum (1RM) testing involves the use of the heaviest weight a person can lift once and is conducted by strength professionals (Howley & Thompson, 2007).
Body parts requiring muscular strength improvement
Based on the strength tests before beginning the strength program, several muscles and body parts needed improvement to make the program a success. First, the body and mind need to be in the right position, which is possible through regular warming up. The hamstrings, glutes, and quadriceps needed improvement to improve curling, pressing, and extension in the strength program. The plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus needed improvement to enhance the standing calf raises.
There was a need to improve the hip adductor achieved groin and hip poppers. Other parts requiring improvement included the abdominals that were improved through crunches and sit-ups, obliques through torso rotation, biceps through arm curls and extensors through wrist curls.
Flexibility tests can be dynamic or static. In static testing, a person performs a stretch and sustains it to the time he or she feel mild tension. Dynamic flexibility testing involves stretching muscles in motion by contracting agonist muscle to stretch an antagonist muscle (Coulson & Archer).
Goniometry is a major way of assessing flexibility through determining motion in a given muscle by positioning the equipment “at the axis of rotation of a joint, and the arms of the goniometer are aligned with the long axis of the bones of the adjacent segments or to an external reference” (Topendsports, 2014). The flexometer measures the flexibility of different parts through attaching the equipment on a limb and measuring the change of limb adjustment in different angles (Topendsports, 2014).
Get your first paper with 15% OFF
Body parts that need the most flexibility improvement
Based on the flexibility tests, various parts of the upper and lower regions needed improvement to achieve optimal flexibility. The shoulders were improved through stretching every arm across the chest while holding the arm as long as possible without mild pain daily for five to ten minutes. The back needed improvement through lying down and back-bending.
The legs and upper thighs also needed improved flexibility before the program. The fingers’ flexibility needed improvement through stretching them as well as closing and opening fists. Ankle flexibility is necessary, achieved by stretching and twisting the leg in different angles. Finally, the writs are vital parts that needed improved flexibility before the strength and flexibility program.
|day 1||day 2||day 3||day 4||day 5||day 6|
|Week 1||Walk-jog for 20 minutes (jog for 2min, walk for 2min, etc)||1 x press-up max score||• 2 x 5 dorsal raises||• 2 x 5 tricep dips||• 1 x sit-up max||• Rest 30-90sec|
|Week 2||Walk-jog for 20 minutes (walk for 1min, jog for 3min, etc)||2 x press-up max||• 2 x 6 dorsal raises||• 2 x 6 tricep dips||• 2 x sit-up max||• Rest 30-90sec|
|Week 3||Jog for 20 minutes (jog for 5min, rest for 1min, etc)||3 x 1/4 press-up max||• 2 x 7 dorsal raises||• 2 x 7 tricep dips||• 3 x 1/2 sit-up max||• Rest 30-90sec|
|Week 4||Jog for 15 minutes||3 x 1/3 press-up max||• 2 x 8 dorsal raises||• 2 x 8 tricep dips||• 3 x 1/3 sit-up max||• Rest 30-90sec|
|Week 5||18-minutes run||3 x press-up max||• 3 x 8 squats||• 3 x sit-up max||• 3 x 8 dorsal raises||• Rest 30-90sec|
|Week 6||run for 20 minutes||3 x press-up max||• 3 x 10 lunges||• 3 x sit-up max||• 3 x 8 dorsal raises||• Rest 30-90sec|
|Week 7||run for 20 minutes||3 x press-up max||• 3 x 12 squats||• 3 x sit-up max||• 3 x 12 dorsal raises||• Rest 30-90sec|
|Week 8||25-30 minutes run||3 x press-up max||• 3 x14 lunges||• 3 x sit-up max||• 3 x 14 dorsal raises||• Rest 30-90sec|
|Week 9||Steady run for 25-30 minutes||4 x press-up max||• 4 x 12 squats||• 4 x sit-up max||• 4 x 12 dorsal raises||• Rest 30-90sec|
|Week 10||run for 25-30 minutes||• 4 x press-up max||• 4 x 14 lunges||• 4 x sit-up max||• 4 x 14 dorsal raises||• Rest 30-90sec|
|Week 11||run for 25-30 minutes||• 4 x 20 chin-ups||• 4 x 16 squats||• 4 x sit-up max||• 4 x 16 dorsal raises||• Rest 30-90sec|
|Week 12||run for 25-30 minutes||• 4 x press-up max||• 4 x 18 lunges||• 4 x sit-up max||• 4 x 18 dorsal raises||• 4 x 12 triceps dips|
|Week 13||run for 30-40 minutes||• 2 x press-ups for 45sec||• 4 x 15 squats||• 2 x sit-ups for 45sec||• 4 x 15 dorsal raises||• Rest 30-90sec|
|Week 14||run for 30-40 minutes||• 2 x press-ups for 45sec||• 4 x 15 lunges||• 2 x sit-ups for 45sec||• 4 x 15 dorsal raises||• Rest 30-90sec|
|Week 15||run for 30-40 minutes||• 2 x press-ups for 1min||• 4 x 20 squats||• 2 x sit-ups for 1min||• 4 x 20 dorsal raises||• 4 x 12 triceps dips|
|Week 16||run for 30-40 minutes||• 2 x press-ups for 1min||• 4 x 20 squats||• 2 x sit-ups for 1min||• 4 x 20 dorsal raises||• 4 x 12 chin-ups|
Exercise physiology principle of progression
In the strength and flexibility training, the program applied the principle of progression. As the time and exercises progress, the intensity of activities also increases, which results in a progressive increase in muscle strength. The duration for training also increased by five minutes every fortnight, starting from 30 minutes in the first two weeks. In the implementation stage, the intensity and frequency of exercises also increased gradually every fortnight.
The initial stages had light activities performed repeatedly to get the body adapted to the program with the increase being slow in the subsequent weeks. The intensity of activities increased gradually over the sixteen-week period, with the weight increases by a small size every fortnight. Implementing the exercise physiology principle of progression supported the development of flexibility and strength in a steady but gradual way (Boone, 2013).
Exercise physiology principle of specificity
The principle of specificity requires the program implementation to consider the greatest benefit of the exercise to the participant by maintaining focus on the reason for taking part in strength and flexibility training (Raven, 2013).
In other words, while a person may achieve fitness and flexibility through other pieces of training, the principle of specificity requires to focus on the main goal, which may not be achieved by other activities. Therefore, in implementing the program, the program progressed with the specific objective of individual participants.
Exercise physiology principle of rest and recovery
The principle of rest and recovery featured in the program because the human body needs rest and recovery as a way of replenishing energy and rejuvenating mental strength. Off days were included in the program to enable bodies to recover energy lost in the exercises. Participants were advised to use the off days and recovery period to engage leisure (Raven, 2013).
Likelihood of implementing the program
The program has a likelihood for success because of sufficient moderation and balancing in its design, which makes it easy and for participants because of gradual development. With a moderate and balanced design, the effort is toward ensuring the full engagement of participants mentally and physically.
Exercise physiology principle of permanency
The design of the program supports its use by individuals for the rest of their lives to maintain appropriate strength and flexibility levels (Boone, 2013). Permanent use is possible by cyclically using the program. For instance, participants can implement the program fully then take a rest for one or two months before beginning the cycle again.
Boone, T. (2013). Introduction to Exercise Physiology. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Christian, J. (2011). Strength Training. Bloomington, Indiana: Xlibris Corporation.
Clark, M., Lucett, S., & Corn, R. J. (2008). NASM essentials of personal fitness training (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Holt, L. E., & Pelham, T. W. (2008). Flexibility a concise guide to conditioning, performance enhancement, injury prevention, and rehabilitation. Totowa, NJ.: Humana Press.
Howley, E. T., & Thompson, D. (2007). Fitness professional’s handbook (5th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Raven, P. B. (2013). Exercise physiology: an integrated approach. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Topendsports. Flexibility Tests. Flexibility Testing. Web.