The Industrialization Era lasted between the years 1760 and 1840 (Brothers 35). It involved transition from manual production of goods to automated production. The main characteristics of the era included improved efficiency, increased production, development of machines, rapid economic growth, and high population growth.
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The era had both positive and negative outcomes. Positive outcomes included creation of a global economy, massive growth of wealth, and population growth. Negative outcomes included creation of social classes, overcrowding, and deterioration of people’s living standards (Brothers 38). Positive outcomes overshadowed negative outcomes. Therefore, the era was mostly positive.
Industrialization promoted globalization of economy in many ways (More 73). It led to production of a wide array of goods that were sold cheaply because of mass production. This lead to increased economic activity, which started in Europe and spread to other parts of the world.
Trade allowed people from different regions and countries to intermingle. In addition, movement of people to new areas led to creation of diverse groups that included people with different skills (More 75). As such, people were grouped based on skills they possessed. Aspects such as gender and race were rarely used to group people because a large proportion of the population was focused on taking advantage of industrialization.
Urbanization and construction of factories was another positive outcome (More 81). New factories facilitated growth of modern cities because many people moved to towns in search of employment. On the other hand, construction of factories created jobs for many people. This improved the living standards of many people because of increased earning power.
Industrialization improved transport networks and communication (More 87). For example, before the industrialization era, transport was only by rivers and roads. Seas were used during transport of heavy loads. Industrialization led to construction of road networks, canals, waterways, and modern railway networks. Transport of raw materials and products became faster and easier.
One of the major negative outcomes was high population growth that led to overcrowding (Griffin 52). This led to deterioration of living standards and hygiene. Overcrowding was caused by movement of large numbers of people to urban areas, especially farmers who had lost land and jobs. It facilitated spread of diseases and other illnesses.
Industrialization had a negative effect on how people interacted. It led to creation of social classes because entrepreneurs amassed wealth while workers languished in poverty (Griffin 53). Due to high availability of workers and low availability of jobs, workers were paid poorly while employers earned huge sums of money. Workers were unable to afford decent housing facilities and food. Many lived in shacks, and children succumbed to nutritional diseases due to poor nutrition.
There was also widespread exploitation of children and women (Griffin 54). Employers preferred hiring female workers because they paid them less than their male counterparts. On the other hand, child labour became rampant. Employers’ greed to amass wealth led to widespread exploitation of children.
Children worked for meager earnings even though working environments were unfavorable and hazardous. At the time, education opportunities were rare and children had no other option other than work in factories and plantations. Despite the fact that productivity of adults and children was almost equal, children were paid less than adults were.
The industrialization era was mostly positive even though negative outcomes were also present. Positive outcomes included globalization of economy, growth of national and individual wealth, urbanization, construction of factories, and job creation. Negative outcomes included child labour, exploitation of women, poor hygiene, diseases, and poor living conditions.
Brothers, Evans. The Industrial Revolution. New York: Evans Brothers, 2009. Print.
Griffin, Emma. Short History of the British Industrial Revolution. London: Palgrave, 2010. Print.
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More, Charles. Understanding the Industrial Revolution. London: Routledge, 2000. Print.