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United Nations is a worldwide organization that was established in 1945 after World War II to substitute League of Nations, whose mission was to bring to end wars between countries and to grant a platform for discussion. United Nations aims at facilitating cooperation in international law, promotion of international security, improving economic development, protection of human rights and advocate for world peace. At present, there are about one hundred and ninety-two member countries, including virtually every acknowledged independent state in the world. Its headquarters are in New York City, the United Nations is divided into administrative organs which deal with substantive and administrative issues.
In 1963, the General Assembly accepted a list of 64 countries to which the Declaration is practical. The 16 countries which are still under the colonial rule are, Western Sahara, American Samoa, New Caledonia, Guam, Pitcairn, Tokelau, Anguilla, Bermuda, Caicos Islands British Virgin Islands, Anguilla, and Cayman (karns, pg 15)
The Roles of the UN in Decolonization
The spirit of the United Nations looks ahead to working together with the administering Powers, the Special Committee, the Department of Political Affairs, and the Secretary-General, in the formulation, promotion and implementation of the decolonization process in Territories that have not yet attained self-independence in the world. Efforts have been put in place to ensure that this process is successfully by the United Nations. The united nations also have been working together with the international community to create awareness on issues relating to self-determination and the decolonization process.
Through the Chief of the Decolonization Unit, the united nation aims at formulating strategies that aim at eradicating colonialism before the end of this century. The United Nations inspires and encourages efforts to ensure that the countries that are not Self-Governing could exercise their right to self-independence, towards the end of the decolonization process.
The United Nations has come up with activities and decolonization plans that facilitate the administration of powers that formulate policies and regulations that protect the rights of the Non-Self-Governing Territories to participate in the decolonization process in their country.
The united nation has been also advocating for the acceleration of globalization, which strategies to meet the target of full decolonization in non-Self-Governing countries by the end of the period of the decolonization process.
The United Nations General Assembly adopted the worldwide pronouncement of Human Rights as protection for people against cruelty and discrimination. This kind of declaration was adopted during the period of world war when the most barbarous crimes in human history occurred. The worldwide declaration was a major step toward embracing the attainment of equal rights and justice and facilitating the decolonization process in non-Self-Governing countries. The ability of countries to determine their own future and rule themselves were goals advocated by the 1960 pronouncement on the yielding of Independence to Colonial Territories and recommendations on the implementation of decolonization plans and strategies in the non-Self-Governing territories.
The Special Committee has advocated for the creation of new and innovative solutions that assist the non-self-governing nation to come up with ideal ideas that would end the colonialism in the territories and hence gaining independence and having political cal equality for the country.
The United Nations, peacekeeping mission has played a big role in the decolonization process in countries where internal and external wars and conflict have been prevailing for many years. Through this process, human rights protection has been upheld hence making it easy for a united nation to make a consensus with member state countries and hence facilitating the success of the decolonization process.
General Assembly of United Nations, social and economic council has adopted Significant Millennium goals along with legislative authority and policies for the realization of the decolonization process. Through eradication of poverty has been a significant problem in colonial countries (Weiss, pg 56)
United Nations together with its agencies have developed political education programs in the Non-Self-Governing countries that create awareness on matters related to political equality, and provide assistance to countries from United Nations agencies, to carry out visiting missions, hence promoting self-determination and repatriation of natural resources to the non-self-governing countries. The General Assembly has advocated for the devolution of powers in Non-Self-Governing countries hence the people of non-self-governing countries have the right to facilitate and participate in the power-sharing process.
United Nations Development Programme, which is one of the United Nation agencies have supported social and political advancement in non –self-governing countries and hence creating good opportunities and an environment for the decolonization process. This agency has also organized programs that promote political awareness for people of nonself countries to be informed on matters related to free and fair elections and their right to vote as citizens of a given country. This agency also advocates for a constitutional amendment that facilitates the decolonization process in non –self-governing territories and participates in amending the constitution that creates a good environment for self-independence in non-self-governing countries. (Mertus, pg 22).
The special committee has been working on improving the cooperation of the administering Powers with all stakeholders to facilitate the decolonization process in the non–self–governing territories. The internal community is working on improving communication with the people of non-self-governing countries to free them from the stigma of colonialism and hence gain new international status.
The special committee provides information to the peoples of the non-self-governing on matters related to the decolonization process hence improving the better exchange of information between the United Nations, territorial government and administrative powers.
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The Special Committee continues its efforts to monitor developments on the ground and reach out to the Non-Self-Governing countries, hence keeping their people informed on matters related to development programs and utilization of available resources hence eradicating poverty which is a major barrier to the decolonization process.
The special committee identifies practical ways of implementing the United Nations decolonization process by supporting the Territories to quest for self-governance and coming up with positive economic and social developments in various Non-Self-Governing countries that could assist in moving the decolonization process forward. The special committee has been working on improving the livelihood life of people in the non-self-governing countries hence paving way for the decolonization process.
The united nation is working on improving the economic, environmental and social status of the people of non-self-governing territories which have been problems on the ground that slows down the decolonization process. Through the provision of funds that promote economic and social development, for example, the provision of medical and social facilities such as hospitals and schools in non –self-governing territories, hence improving the health status of their people and reducing morbidity and mortality rates. Schools help in promoting education, which promotes understanding and creating awareness on various issues affecting the territory including the decolonization process, human rights protection and constitutional reforms. (Gordenker, pg 21)
The Special Committee continues to support programs that promote sustainable development that enhances the capacity for self-governance in nonself–governing territories.
The United Nations is supporting development programs for instance Millennium Development Goals, which promote the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger in non-self-governing countries, a problem that has been the main contributing barrier to attaining self-independence in these territories. Advocating for primary education promotes political education which pave way for self-governing. The promotion of global partnership with non-self-governing countries facilitates economic and social developments that enhance the decolonization process. Environmental sustainability provides a favorable environment for the decolonization process (Betty, pg 52).
The United Nations Development Programme is the leading multilateral supply of grant technical assistance to the non-self-governing countries in the world today, which facilitates programs that promote political education and power-sharing deals in these territories. The World Health Organization, The Global Fund, and UNAIDS are leading institutions, which battle against AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis around the globe. These diseases are the major cause of high mortality, especially in non-self-governing countries. These efforts promote the decolonization process directly or indirectly.
The United Nations has been doing great work in promoting human development through various stakeholders and various agencies for instance the world bank which funds many worldwide organizations that work in non-self-governing countries to promote human development hence empowering the people to attain their independence.
The human development programs aimed at eradicating poverty which is a major problem affecting the people in the non-self-governing territories and hence slowing down the process of decolonization in these territories because of a lack of self-empowerment.The united nation also has been working to improve the literacy status in non-self-governing countries hence promoting cooperation and communication channels with the stakeholders involved in the decolonization process and the people of non-self-governing countries.
United Nations and the Special Committee have created room for discussion and negotiations on political matters together with the respective administering Powers hence coming up with political options that could bring to an end the colonial powers in the non-self-governing countries.
The united nations have come up with programs that facilitate funding programs in the Non-Self-Governing Territories hence assisting these Territories in completing the process of decolonization.
The UNESCO has provided a friendly environment that will enable all people in the non-self-governing countries to access education, science, culture and communication hence enlightening them on their fundamental rights whether social, economic, political, or environmental. Also ensures that justice, law, human rights and basic freedoms are respected regardless of race, gender or religion. These will empower the people of the non-self-governing countries to quest for self-independence. (UNESCO, pg 12).
The United Nations Environment Programme works all over the world to change the attitude of people toward the environment, especially the ecology. The body formulates and prepares workshops on the environment and also tries to amend international laws with regard to environmental issues as they are dynamic in nature. It also tries to build capacities of international legal institutions on environmental protection. These efforts have helped eliminate forces that contribute to environmental degradation and hence the availability of enough resources to satisfy the human needs of the people of non-self-governing countries.
Respect for human rights is fundamental since the establishment of peace on earth after the Second World War. The UN declaration provides basic rights for all human beings although these rights are overlooked during periods of civil conflicts and wars in various parts of the world. The UNHCHR is a Commission under the UN body that is mandated with the promotion of human rights. The Commission carries out its activities by taking firm actions with the help of the global community to ensure that the rights of every individual are respected, including the right to self-governing in non-self-governing territories. It ensures that international conventions for human rights are signed and ratified. Also carries out workshops by providing technical cooperation and aid in the training of police and military as these security agencies are the ones mandated to provide protection to human life and property although sometimes are criticized for using excessive force on people during disarmament and conflict resolution process. It works in collaboration with other agencies such as the International Federation of Human Rights, Amnesty International (Groom, pg 97)
Since 1945 when the united nation was formed, over 80 non-self-governing countries have attained independence. Through the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization process, formed in 1962, the United Nations has focused a lot of its considerable attention on the decolonization process in non-self-governing territories. The united nation has also supported and promoted the new states with funding through the World Bank, hence promoting self-determination initiatives in nonself governing countries to quest for independence in their territory. The special committee has overseen the decolonization process of each territory which is bigger than twenty thousand kilometers squared and deleted them from the United Nations register of Non-Self-Governing countries.
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