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The research design adopted in this research study is the descriptive survey design. The descriptive design is used in the preliminary and exploratory studies. This design allows the researcher to gather information, summarize, present and interpret the data and information for the purpose of clarification. The main advantage of descriptive studies is that they are not limited to finding of facts only but may provide important information and knowledge on certain facts in the study. It provides solutions to certain probllems that may be encountered in the study.
Descriptive research studies are carried out in order to come up with the information in a given existing situation. Further, descriptive studies may include facts, current conditions concerning the nature of the person, a number of objects or class of events and may involve procedures of induction, analysis, classification, enumeration and measurement. Such study helps to secure evidence on existing situations and conditions to identify standards or norms with which to compare, present and hence plans for way forward. In addition descriptive research studies help in formulating the next step to take from the current situation.
Any ethical issues in the studies may be taken in to consideration so as to get proper results. The researcher is to behave ethically and carry out proper research on the subject by researching past history and passing out questionnaires. Because this research may involve a lot of personal information about people ethical practice is quite important. The researcher should let the participants do so voluntarily without any coercion or pressure from the researcher. This voluntary participation should be encouraged by the researcher. The participants should be informed on the researched and all the factors involved in the research. This is that the participants should have an informed consent. The respondents must offer their consent to participate in the study knowing well the risks and procedures involved.
The researcher must ensure that the participants are not harmed as a result of their participation. Both physically and mentally. The researcher should assure the participants of privacy and confidentiality if they participate. The information that can pinpoint a response to a particular respondent should not be available to others without the consent of the respondent. This ensures that the anonymity of the respondent will be maintained in the information presented. This is very important especially in this research where the medical details of respondents is to be used.
The researcher will employ various instruments and tools to collect data to use in coming up with results for the study.
The main instruments utilised are, questionnaires, hospital discharge records automated records such as prescription drug files, biological measurements, and record reviews. The main data collection instruments are quationnaires. The questionnaires consist of open ended and closed ended questions. The open ended questions provide qualitative data for the research while the closed ended ones provide quantitative data. The administration methods for questionnaires include self administered, mailed questionnaires and group administered. Nowadays many questionnaires are carried out over the internet in the form of internet surveys.
A target population is the total cases of people, firms or institutions that posses certain characteristics that are of interest to the study. The population of interest are members of the population of various age brackets who have been diagnosed with the HPV virus. A sample is a selection of the part of the population selected for observation and analysis. The sampling method employed is stratified sampling. This method falls under the techniques of probability sampling. Stratified sampling technique enables generalization of a large population within a margin of error that is statistically determinable and also gave the employees equal opportunity to participate.
Sampling thus not merely entails a simple selection of the few members of the population. Essentially it involves the use of probability and validity, under probability sampling every member of the population an equal chance of representation or an equal chance of being picked. The researcher will consider a number of the population members in order to acquire the desired results effectively. The sample selected from the total include age groups between 40-70 of both genders. The sample also picked some members who were 28 years old. This enabled the researcher to know which age group has a high rate of cancer infection due to the HPV virus.
The researcher uses both primary and secondary data in order to gather the required information. The primary sources of data collection methods used in the study incude questionnaires that was a crucial source for information from the people suffering from the disease. The researcher pre-tested the questionnaires before using them to collect actual data that was to be used in the study. The questionnaire used was made up of several questions, which were prepared by the researcher, and they were sent to respondents to seek for detailed information from them whereby later, the data was tabulated and subjected to a statistical manipulation under the study. Semi-structured questionnaires were also used by the researcher since the researcher found it easy to compute and also it allowed the respondents to give out clearly their opinions about the research/problem under study. This provided some qualitative data for the study.
Data analysis is a process that involves data sorting, data editing, data coding data entry, data cleaning, data processing and interpretation of the results. In this case, data received from the duly completed questionnaires was edited, coded, described, tabulated and interpreted in relation to the research objectives. Descriptive methods were employed by the researcher and data was presented in the form of frequency distribution tables that will facilitate description and explanation of the study findings. The researcher will record the findings by use of graphs and tables. The use of SPSS was very informative on the results gotten from the study.
The prevalence of infection according to gender is as shown below:
|Rate of Infection||Frequency||Percentage|
The survey was carried out among people who had been diagnosed with throat cancer. The sample population was tested for the HPV virus and the Geno Type present in their system. According to the results of our study there is a higher infection rate in females at all ages as compared to males across the same age groups. There is a 20% more chance of females contracting HPV as compared to their male counterparts. Genotype 16 is the most prevalent form the virus is found in. this is seen because 100% of the sample population tested positive for this genotype. 100% of the sample population also tested positive for throat cancer which was caused by the presence of the papilloma Virus. The respondents under study are seen to have contracted the throat cancer due to the exposure to the HPV virus.
The study is able to connect that many cases of cancer can be seen to originated from the HPV virus. This connection is seen in the information gathered in the study where all the respondents have the HPV virus present in them. The increased risk factor of getting infected with the HPV virus can be traced to oral sex. The presence of throat cancer in the respondents is related to the presence of HPV in their bodies. The changing sexual lives of the people can be seen to increase the rate of infections. HPV can also be caused by sharing of drinks and cigarettes between infected and non infected people. The most common HPV genome is type 16, which is attributed to most cancers including cervical and throat cancers. This genome implants itself in the RNA of the individuals who are infected.
People should be educated more about the HPV virus because many people are ignorant of its existence. Safe sexual practices should be encouraged among the people so as to reduce the rates of infection and spread of the HPV virus. People should be encouraged to go for tests in order to know if they are already infected and take the necessary steps. This is done in order to prevent cancer.researchers should come up with more solutions to this problem. They should research and develop more of the preventive and curative methods of the infection. The HPV 16 should be widely researched because it is the most common one present in the people.