Recycling allows people turn waste materials into something new and useful. In such way, we gain the opportunity not only to save our environment but also to reduce utilizing of raw materials. Car recycling is also dedicated to these purposes. More than 70 percent less energy is used to recycle metal instead of making new (Grabianowski par. 3).
This issue is crucial for the UAE, as the new approach is likely to enhance the income of the country and make it more independent. Recycled metals are much cheaper and can be mixed with new steel. That is why today a car consists of many details that can be processed. There are several techniques and digital tools that help to select materials for products. The methods proposed by Ashby and the CES sector are among them.
The work that was written by Ashby and Cebon deals with the CES EduPack and describes “a design-led procedure for the teaching of materials and processes” on its basis (1). It is explained that the CES EduPack is of a great advantage as it includes texts and software tools that are to help in teaching, as they describe the properties of materials and processes. Everything is focused on the systematic method of selecting materials.
All the things that engineers produce are made from materials. Needless to say that these materials are to be chosen correctly so that no problems occur during the creation of a product and its exploitation. That is why it is important to remember that the materials are to be of “low density, high strength, modest cost and resistant to sea water”, for example (Ashby and Cebon 1). So as the design is chosen, one is to make sure that the materials selected for the product perfectly meet all requirements.
To streamline the process a person can refer to the many of engineering materials, which includes the basic families that can be combined to create hybrids. In order to deepen into the subject, the hierarchical structure for material classification should be used.
It allows to find out not only the family of the material but also more detailed information such as its class and a range of all attributes, which is called a property profile of the material. The same structuring can be applied to the manufacturing process. So referring to the structures, one can find the best match to meet the requirements of the design. Thus, the selection of the materials is to go through several steps:
- An engineer is to consider all materials and find out which materials can be used according to the design requirements;
- The materials’ attributes fail to meet at least one of the constraints mentioned in the design, and they are to be eliminated;
- As only appropriate materials are left, one is to define which of them can do the job better than others;
- To make sure that the candidates are the ones that the person was searching for, the professional is to find the documentation about them. These can be case studies that describe previous utilizing, some peculiarities or warnings;
- Finally, the materials that perfectly fit are chosen.
Young’s modulus and other similar charts can be used to implement the strategy as they present a perspective on the world of materials regarding their properties. By analyzing them, a professional is likely to determine the familiarities and clusters.
The CES EduPack software simplifies this process as provides the students with the database of mentioned information. As one chooses the material, he/she can find out some general information about it as well as mechanical, thermal, electrical properties.
Moreover, the range of the products in which it is typically used is mentioned (for example, ABS is typically used for automotive instrument panels and other interior components, automobile grilles, wheel covers, and large components for recreational vehicles, etc.). In a similar way, the information about the manufacturing processes is presented.
The student gains the description of the process, its physical and economic attributes, shape, and typical uses. Thus, all steps of material and process selection can be conducted with the help of the CES software. It even provides with the charts of properties and their descriptions.
This software is convenient for teaching and learning the material because it has three levels of data that are in congruence with the students’ level. It is likely to assist people who study or already work in the sphere of recycling. The advantage of utilizing the CES software for car recycling is undeniable.
Professionals can use it for identifying material content and the way it can be combined. They can change the steel bumper on the lighter one by finding the materials that fit the design requirements and are less heavy. Thus, the car industry can develop as an appropriate material in one detail can save fuel and raw material and make the vehicle cheaper. Moreover, while choosing the materials, the professional can identify whether it can be recycled or not referring to the recycling content mentioned in the database.
Mike Ashby presents material and process selection charts that are focused on material properties and process attributes. The property space devoted to the class of materials is displayed on the charts. This information can be used by professionals for identification the values for properties, selection the materials that meet the design requirements, and creation hybrid materials (Ashby 4).
The process charts are also meant to be used as the source of information about various processes and as the device for their selection. A range of targets can be met at the same time, as the professional have an opportunity to apply these charts successively. Of course, it is much easier to cope with the issue while working on the needed chart directly. Such opportunity is provided by the author, which enhances the process.
The carts allow the professionals in the sphere to define the class to which the material belongs and to identify the range of behavior that is particular to its members. Thus, it occurs to be easy to determine an amount of materials that can be recycled at the end of life. Moreover, as the information about the family is clarified, this chart helps to sort the materials when they are already recycled. Thus, it occurs to be clear what elements can be combined to represent fine ceramics that has an ability of load-bearing application, for example.
The charts also provide the users with the list of properties and allow to find a set of materials that have several specific features. For example, in perspective of recycling, destiny, price and melting point can be of high interest as well as the eco-properties and environmental resistance.
Still, it is impossible to choose a material without further consideration, as the charts provide approximate data. The advantage lies in the fact that a professional can define a subset of materials, with which one will proceed to work. Thus, the selection charts can assist in sorting materials and identifying the processes that are to be undertaken.
The source also helps to associate materials and processes. It includes the bar-chart that defines which process can “shape, or join, or finish” particular materials (Ashby 28). Young’s modulus applied to the properties helps to calculate the effect of recycled material and to predict whether there is a sense in working with it or not.
The work presented by Premrudee Kanchanapiya acquaints the readers with the world of materials and focuses on the CES EduPack software (3). There are four data-tables in the CES Edu database; these are materials and processes and references and suppliers. The software is adapted to the needs of the students of Engineering and Materials Science and Design, as it is divided according to their knowledge:
- Level 1 is appropriate for the first years. It consists of the main 64 materials and 75 processes;
- Level 2 is meant for the students of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th years of studying and provides them with the information about 94 materials and 107 processes;
- Level 3 is used by bachelors, masters and research students. The data-tables include the description of 2916 materials and 233 processes.
Unfortunately, if a student needs to compare the materials, one cannot do it utilizing the data sheet. Still, material bar-charts and property charts can be used. While dealing with recycling, they provide the opportunity to select the best material according to the requirements of the design.
Thus, after identifying the subset of materials with the help of selection charts provided by Ashby, one can choose the best material to be used in a product that will be recycled after the end of life. Moreover, it allows to define which materials can be gathered while recycling on the basis of their properties.
The material search space of this tool can be also used for such purposes, as by mentioning concept, embodiment and details, one can specify the product needed by the market. Identifying what function is demanded from the component, what requirements it is to meet, what is to be increased or reduced and which variables are free, the professional can narrow the range of elements.
Thus, Ashby’s method and the CES EduPack Software can greatly assist the professionals in collecting and processing the materials that can be recycled. Together they are an operant force for the whole industry and technology capability.
The source “Cambridge Engineering Selector” is aimed to pay attention to the eco-product development. It is a useful manual for those who start working with the CES EduPack Software, as it includes many details and peculiarities of its utilizing.
“Vehicle Recycling” is presented by Toyota Motor Corporation to pay the customer’s attention to the life cycle of their cars and underline that the end-of-life cars are to be recycled to save our nature.
Toyota’s plan is to prevent environmental pollution with the help of recycling and efficient resources utilizing. They are targeted at the usage of ecological plastic in their cars. That is why the CES software and the Ashby’s method should be applied to find the set of materials that will meet the design requirements.
The aim of the company can be associated with non-waste production, as they want to provide the customers with the cars that can be easily recycled at the end of life to create a new vehicle from this material (Environmental Affairs Div. and Toyota Motor Corporation 2).
The approach of the Life Cycle Assessment is to be the basis of the design according to the CES. Toyota maintains this idea through the process of car development. They tend to reduce the usage of fuel used and pollution produced. These peculiarities can be considered while selecting the materials utilizing the software. Thus, the process is to go through tree main stages:
- Planning – define what is expected from the product;
- Design – fit the requirements with by dint of appropriate material and process selection;
- Confirmation – make sure that the product meets all demands.
Toyota not only makes its vehicles from the materials that can be recycled but also indicates, which details are appropriate with the help of special mark. So the process of gathering needed elements streamlines. As the company tries to utilize plastics that is made from plants, the methods and tools for materials selection can help it to identify whether they can maintain the qualities of petroleum-based ones or not.
Thus, using Ashby’s methods and the CES software, the company can identify which materials are likely to be substituted and which can be used instead of them without reducing the quality of a product. It can also define what processes are to be conducted to join or shape the materials.
The UAE puts a lot of efforts to control the quality of water and air. The country enhances its industries to prevent pollution and increase autonomy. That is why recycling of various materials is important for the country. Recycling cars is a crucial advantage for the UAE, as it is the best way to dispose of cars and gain useful materials from them at the same time. It helps people and organizations to save their nature and resources.
Recycling cars provides an opportunity to use raw materials in the most effective way and to return them to the country’s economy cycle. Advanced ways to sort materials “are necessary to ensure the value of industries that use recycled materials, especially since the increasing demand for recycled materials requires us to look for and implement the latest technologies” (“Waste and Recycling” 6). To minimalize waste and increase the profit of recycling, more attention is to be paid to the selection of materials.
Digital tools such as CES software can be used to educate people and deepen their knowledge in the sphere. The techniques offered by the scholars such as Ashby methods allow the companies to produce products that are easy to recycle and to create a new one from the recycled materials so that their quality remains high. Thus, the industries save money and increase their capitals by protecting the environment.
Omitting special tools and techniques targeted at the streamlining of the process, companies are likely to create products, cars, in particular, that are hardly recyclable or do not meet the customers’ demands. Thus, the best way to enhance the car industry is to pay more attention to the selection of materials and processes that refer to the sphere and are utilized in the vehicle production and recycling.
Ashby, Mike 2009, Material and Process Selection Charts. 2015. Web.
Ashby, Mike, and David Cebon 2007, Teaching Engineering Materials: the CES EduPack. 2015. Web.
Environmental Affairs Div., and Toyota Motor Corporation 2014, Vehicle Recycling. 2015. Web.
Grabianowski, Ed. How Car Crushers Work. 2011. Web.
Kanchanapiya, Premrudee 2008, Cambridge Engineering Selector. 2015. Web.
Waste and Recycling 2015. 2015. Web.