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China and India Population: Causes, Impact and Management Research Paper



When considering the factors that predetermined the rapid and practically uncontrollable population growth in China (0.43% in 2016 according to the CIA data (“Population Growth Rate” CIA.gov)), one must mention the fact that the living standards have increased significantly over the past few decades (Lucas 2). As a result, the rates of infant mortality are very low, and life expectancy is outstandingly high in the state. The issue of the living standards increases, in its turn, revolved around the rise in the number of immigrants in China that was due to the numerous job offerings.

Furthermore, apart from a rapid increase in the number of immigrants to the state, the improved living conditions triggered an increase in the life expectancy levels. Despite the fact that a law prohibiting one-third of Chinese families from having more than one child was passed in 1979 (“India” CIA.gov), the population growth rates continue to rise, therefore, becoming a reason for understandable concern among the authorities.


Although a substantial part of the Indian population cannot enjoy high living standards, the population growth rates are very high in the identified area as well. However, the reasons for the identified phenomenon are the exact opposite of the ones that cause population growth in China. Particularly, the high poverty rates and the lack of literacy among a large number of people compel them to have as many family members as possible to increase the income rates.

Furthermore, the cultural tradition, which encourages Indian people to marry at a relatively young age and produce as many male children as possible, evidently has its toll on the population growth level. Finally, the lack of literacy mentioned above also implies that a lot of Indian people are unaware of the essential concepts of contraception; consequently, the tools for avoiding pregnancy and controlling childbirth are used rarely. The factors listed above affect the population growth levels greatly, seeing how rapid the increase thereof in India is. According to the official statistical data, in 2016, the identified index amounted to 1.19% (“India” CIA.gov), which is nearly three times as high as in China.


It is quite spectacular that, despite the obvious differences in the situations observed in China and India, the growth rates in both states increases exponentially every year. Indeed, seeing that there has been an improvement in the living conditions in China, which is the exact opposite of the situation in India, one may assume that the population growth rates in the two states should be in inverse proportion to each other.

However, the identified phenomenon can be explained by the fact that, in both cases, the subject matter is affected by the specifics of the local culture and economy to a considerable extent. The economic issues and the political choices made by the state authorities must be listed among the basic reasons for the growth rates to be nearly equally high. For instance, in China, the creation of a range of job opportunities, especially for the lower class citizens, can be viewed as the effect of economic growth (“Population Growth Rate” CIA.gov)).


The effects of the increase in the population rates, however, are far from being beneficial for either of the states. Initially, the rise in the number of people residing in the state allowed for filling in the vacancies and, therefore, creating the environment in which economic growth could occur due to the increase in the efficacy of both private and public companies. The enhancement of the production processes, particularly the quantity and the quality of the goods, served as the means of increasing GDP and GNP, thus, building the pathway to economic prosperity.

However, the oversaturation of the job market is bound to lead to a drastic change, i.e., the reduction in the number of job opportunities and the following rise in the unemployment rates. With most of the positions for low- and middle-paid jobs being taken by immigrants, the Chinese may face the lack of jobs in the high-payment area. Consequently, the number of candidates per each vacancy in the low-paid job department will increase, yet the Chinese candidates are likely to have trouble competing with immigrants in the identified area. Therefore, unemployment and the subsequent reduction in the quality of life for a vast amount of the local population should be considered the primary effect of the consistent population growth. Additionally, educational opportunities will be restricted to a large number of people once the population reaches a critical point of growth.


Furthermore, the issue of food shortage should be brought up as one of the possible effects of overpopulation in China. Additionally, there is a high probability that, with the increase in population rates, the pollution levels will explode. Despite the fact that the state policies on ecology are rather rigid, the production processes affect the environment significantly since waste management strategies are designed very poorly, and the emissions produced by the corresponding companies have an increasingly large effect on the ecosystem and its inhabitants, including not only people but also flora and fauna. The specified issue, in fact, can be connected to the possibility of food deficiency. With the changes in habitats, they will become unsustainable, and a range of species will become extinct, among which there might be essential sources for food (Hualou and Yansui 1280).


For India, the absence of control measures aimed at restricting the population growth rates will also imply rather unfavorable effects. As stressed above, it will be impossible to control employment levels in the state; consequently, the poverty issue will become even more topical and difficult to address. The exploitation of labor force has to be viewed as another threat that the lack of control over the population growth rates will entail. Once the supply becomes times greater than the demand in the labor market due to the rise in the population number and, therefore, the number of candidates per position, employers will most likely use the opportunity to reduce benefits for the people that they hire, including the salary, the workplace conditions, etc. Consequently, the staff will be mistreated by the employers and deprived of a range of financial opportunities, not to mention the ones related to their professional development and career. Finally, the problems associated with the income distribution have to be mentioned. With the increase in the number of residents, the welfare of its citizens is likely to shrink. As a result, the scenario in which the middle class will become nonexistent may be a possible course of economic and social development of the state (Kaushal and Varghese 1478).

Population Growth Management

Needless to say, the problems listed above pose a significant threat to the well-being of the people living in India and China. Therefore, the means of population growth management will have to be introduced to the social systems of the states. Promoting awareness about the tools for carrying out family planning procedures could be a possible solution to the issue. The population of India and China needs to be educated about the methods of controlling birth and planning their family.

Furthermore, a compromise between the culture of the residents and the concept of family planning must be viewed as an option. As stressed above, for some people, especially as far as the Indian culture is concerned, the very idea of family planning may be deemed as inappropriate. Thus, it will be necessary to locate the solution that will help the target audiences accept the concept of family planning and, therefore, contribute to a reduction in the population growth rates.

Naturally, it is expected that educating the target audiences about the importance of family planning, the means of executing it, and the possibility of their beliefs and the principles of family planning to coexist will take a significant amount of time. Differently put, it may take a while before the effects become visible. However, even creating the basis for the further prevention of an exponential population growth is crucial for both China and India at present. As soon as the appropriate strategy involving the management of the cultural issue and the provision of the related inform information to the target audiences is designed, a massive improvement for both India and China can be expected.

Works Cited

Hualou, Long, and Liu Yansui. “A Brief Background to Rural Restructuring in China: A Forthcoming Special Issue of Journal of Rural Studies.” Journal of Geographic Science, vol. 25, no. 10, 2015, pp. 1279-1280.

CIA.gov, 2016, Web.

Kaushal, Rajendra Kumar, and George K Varghese. “Municipal Solid Waste Management in India-Current State and Future Challenges: A Review.” International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST), vol. 4, no. 4, 2012, pp. 1473-1489.

Lucas, Robert E. B. Internal Migration in Developing Economies: An Overview. KNOMAD, 2015, Web.

“Population Growth Rate.” CIA.gov, 2016, Web.

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"China and India Population: Causes, Impact and Management." IvyPanda, 2 Sept. 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/china-and-india-population-causes-impact-and-management/.

1. IvyPanda. "China and India Population: Causes, Impact and Management." September 2, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/china-and-india-population-causes-impact-and-management/.


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IvyPanda. 2020. "China and India Population: Causes, Impact and Management." September 2, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/china-and-india-population-causes-impact-and-management/.


IvyPanda. (2020) 'China and India Population: Causes, Impact and Management'. 2 September.

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