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Control Breast Cancer: Nursing Phenomenon, Ontology and Epistemology of Health Management Research Paper

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Updated: May 13th, 2022

Conceptual Model

Conceptual Model

Nursing Phenomenon in the Model

From the above diagram, it is clear that breast cancer patient s results depend on several factors. These factors include nurses or medical practitioners, treatment and management of the disease, and the society. Hence, nurses have their role of helping the patient during treatment of the breast cancer. Similarly, according to Moran, & Burson, phenomenon is something that is happening. Considering all eleven classifications of the nursing health patterns, the phenomenon applied is that of health management.

Ontology and Epistemology of Health Management

The process of health management of breast cancer patient requires consultation in the imaging department, pathological center, and the clinical patients information (Dasmahapatra, Dupplaw, Hu, Lewis, H., Lewis, p., Poissonnnier, & Shadbolt,). Then, the evidence received is presented in an expert way leading to implementation of the decision on the management of the disease. Hence, collection of all information would be cumbersome. However, the current science has enabled the evolution of information. In the current world, new techniques have emerged that easy and quick collections of reliable information are large in quantities. This explains how the current world has enabled quick evolution in management of breast cancer and its treatment.

However, lack of infrastructures that can share information is hampering data analyses in the whole world. Besides, various organisations want to retain their information as private. As a result, few breast cancer sites are performing trials on the new researches (Mathias, Andrew, Coco, Wailer, Luis, Anguita,…, Holger).

Health management

Breast Cancer

On the other hand, there are various ways in which nurses are involved in management of breast cancer. First, nurses may help the patient understand breast cancers diagnosis process and how the diagnosis process leads to swelling of body parts. This includes how doctor removes at least one of the lymph nodes to diagnosis breast cancer, and determines the spread of the disease. They may also help the patient understand the other processes of treating breast cancer like radiation. Moreover, nurses play a significant role in treatment of breast cancer through incision or radiation (MacGarthy, 2012). Furthermore, they help the patient understand and appreciate herself despite being sick. As a result, they use their knowledge to help the patient understand how treating breast cancer through radiation or incision causes damages to lymph vessels carrying fluid at the lymph node. They can explain to them how the lymph node connects to several significant organs. Nevertheless, treatment of the condition ruins the association during treatment and cuts off the smooth flow of lymph fluid that was there especially to the upper body. Hence, lymph fluid at arm, chest, and breast cannot be drained from these parts of the body. As a result, the patient should try to avoid more generation of lymph into the destroyed lymphatic vessels to avoid swelling of the body parts (Quin, 2008).

Second, nurses can guide the patient on how they can note the symptoms of the disease and hence lowering its potential. Nurses are professional and know the early symptoms of diseases. From their knowledge, they may provide publications related to breast cancer or they may also offer direct advice to the patient. As a result, the patient will know the symptoms of the disease. Once they are detected, they will be handled appropriately (Viele, 2007).

Lymphedema

After diagnosis, the nurse will advise the patient on the risk of lymphedema and warn him/her about the following symptoms: be on the look out for any swelling of the body part, feeling heavy or full on one body part, changing textures of the skin, aching or other discomforts, restricted movement of the body parts and unfitting parts of the clothes like arm. In most cases, patients ignore these symptoms (Viele, 2007). For instance, the patient may get a swelling arm. However, on lifting it, it gets back to normal and the person decides not to get medication, and actually it is wrong. With time, the arm will swell and get hard. In order to avoid future troubles, any sign detected as unproportional change of the body should be reported to the medical team and appropriate help is to be given.

Moreover, nurses should guide the patient during medication and diagnosis (Sherry & Andra). They are supposed to let the patient know what to do after surgery. In most cases, the part incised swells for some time. However, the swelling should be standard. For some patient, the swelling is quite visible making the whole arm swell. In such cases, the patient should understand the swelling signifies that he/she is at risk of contracting lymphedema. Moreover, the nurse should guide the patient on the medical team he/she should consult in case of any problems. The patient should know who can give him/her the needed help and how they can do it. Moreover, the nurse is expected to explain some routine activities that can be done to help reduce the lymphedema such as combing you hair using the affected arm. The affected arm can be lifted above the heart level for forty five minutes, two or three times a day. Hence, they will have explained how this form of exercise will help pump the lymph from damage vessels to undamaged.

Additionally, nurses have a vast knowledge on scientific knowledge. Hence, they should make the patient understand some of the scientific facts. For instance, there are no scientific studies showing that Breast cancer can be prevented, or there is no correlation of mammograms to increase lymphedema (Sherry, & Andra). Moreover, they should make the patient understand the importance of breast cancer controlling drugs like Mammograms, and how some baseless theories do not fit in the world of medicine such as mamograms having an effect on lymphedema. As a result, the patient will learn that any swelling occurring after using mammograms should lead to consulting medical specialists and no patient should avoid them because they play a major role in treatment of breast cancer (Rosadale, 2009).

Moreover, nurses who know all information can help the patient to manage lymphedema through avoiding infections. They let the patients learn that by avoiding infections, they will prevent the body from sending extra lymph fluid to the affected areas. As a result, the patient should observe good hygiene and skin care. Moreover, they notify the patient about some risk their diagnosed parts might have. One of them is cellulitis and in case the patient detects the disease, he/she should report it immediately to the doctor (National Cancer Action Time).

Additionally, they should help the patient learn and avoid extreme temperatures. This includes giving the process through which they can protect themselves. For instance, they can protect their chest, arms, and shoulders from sun burns. Avoid using open fires when cooking and instead they should cook in ovens covering their vulnerable part. This is due to the fact that cold and heating may damage body tissues and cause extra fluids. Moreover, they can help them learn to avoid causing constrictions to the arm. When constriction occurs, it causes arm blood pressure to rise in the blood vessels and the fluid is forced to move to the lymph vessels (Nursing care plan).

What is more, they can help the patient learn that there are treatments that help reduce the risk of getting infected, the swell is getting worse or swells more (Nursing care plan). Nonetheless, the treatment will only be prescribed by the doctor. For instance, the case of mild Breast cancer may be treated by a specialist with therapists training. However, the moderate or severe Breast cancer requires an expert with proficiency training ranging from skin cares to fitting garments. Moreover, the patient may take cover from the insurance company that may help him/her to pay for needs like Breast cancer treatments (America cancer society)..

Besides, they should help the patient understand the role of the lymphatic system. They can let the patient know that lymph system plays a significant role in helping the body to fight diseases. Moreover, it filters harmful materials from the blood in blood vessels and feeds the body cells since it is rich in food materials, salt, and water. Hence, it helps nourish cells that are distant with the help of body muscles.

Nurses should also help the patient know lymphedema as a result of breast cancer diagnosis occurring at the arm, chest or breast as a side effect. However, it does not occur to all treated breast cancers. It mostly occurs to those who are surgically treated or underwent radiation. Moreover, nurses are to explain the risk of getting lymphedema depending on the number of lymph nodes removed or destroyed. As a result, they should explain to the patient the importance of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy that helps reduce the number of lymph nodes destroyed and thus controlls swelling that may occur (Linda, Bohn, & Hanish, 2004). This is for the reason that Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy is a surgery method and with a help of it fewer number of nodes is distracted from the patients body unlike the direct incision. Moreover, the risk is high for individuals who are obese. However, medicine has not been able to devise a way of predicting those who will develop the disease. As a result, patients are advised to seek help from health team on their risk of contracting Breast cancer ( America cancer society).

Likewise, as a way of managing lymphedema, nurses are supposed to tell the patient the importance of maintaining a healthy body (Royal college of nursing, 2010). Hence, in the fight against Breast cancer, the patient must try to maintain a healthy body weight. Mostly, obese women contract the condition easily than slim ones. As a result, the patient should first contact the medical team about the appropriate weight, and ask for advice on how to remain fit.

Moreover, regular exercises help reduce Breast cancer risks and at the same time lead to it. This means, some exercises could lead to the shapeless form of the hand. However, doing the required exercise may reduce risks of getting to this condition. As a result, the patient should find a team of professionals who will help him/her start with the recommended level of exercise and progress to higher levels. Also, the team will determine the right amount of exercise for the patient since overexercising when having Breast cancer is wrong. Besides, the patient should consult the medical team on when it is appropriate for him/her to start exercising. Furthermore, during exercising, the patient should try and focus on his/her affected hand. The patient should use it normally but without tiring the shoulders (Royal college of nursing , 2010).

Additionally, they should let the patient learn another way of managing lymphedema using compressional garment. This means that the patient can wear fitted sleeves that can help control lymph movements. Patients with this condition should wear fitting garment. Otherwise, the condition may get worse. They should let the patient know how the use of the garment helps reduce the body swelling by forcing the fluid in the arm be back to the body. However, the garment should be of right fitting as per doctors instructions. Mostly, they should advise those with the disease to use them The patient should also be informed on places the garment is safe to wear so as to avoid any problems. Hence, the patients should consult his/her medical team on the appropriate method of controlling Breast cancer. (Epistemological study of breast cancer).

Moreover, nurses should help the patient learn the significance of other people in treatment. Other people are important for comfort and strength (National Cancer Action Time). Moreover, they provide vital information over the best place for treatment. One may get support from others who understand your conditions. The patient may forget his/her condition difficulties. They help the patient to get the best care. The most important thing is to make the patient’s body or mind feel as normal as possible (Wilkinson 2000).

Limitation, Assumptions, and Implication of the Knowledge

In conclusion, the best person to manage Breast cancer is the patient alone. It is his/her sole responsibility to manage the disease. For instance, the patient should learn how well he/she can take good care of their own skin especially the affected areas. It is only the patient who can avoid diseases and minor injuries. What is more, it is through his/her close check, Breast cancer is noticed at an early age and properly treated. Doing exercises will also help keep the risk low (Korber, Pandula, Gray, & Margot, 2011).

References

America cancer society. Lymphedema: what every woman with breast cancer should know. n.d. Web.

Dasmahapatra, S., Dupplaw, D., Hu, B., Lewis, H., Lewis, P., Poissonnnier, M., & Shadbolt, N. n.d. Web.

Epistemological study of breast cancer. n.d. Web.

Korber, S., F., Pandula, C., Gray, J., & Margot, P. (2011). A breast navigator program: Bariers, enhancer, and nursing intervention. Oncology nursing forum, 38(1): 44-50. Web.

Linda, S., Bohn, M., & Hanish, K. (2004). Role of a breast cancer nurse: case manager. Web.

MacGarthy T., P. (2012). Web.

Mathias, B, Andrew, D. S., Coco, C., Wailer, G., Luis, M., Anguita, A.,…, Holger,S. The ACGT master ontology and its application-towards an ontology- driven cancer research and management system. n.d. Web.

Moran, K., & Burson, R. n.d. Web.

National Cancer Action Time. Quality in noursing. n.d. Web.

Nursing care plan. A woman with Breast. n.d. Web.

Quin, A. (2008). Expanding the role of the ecological nurse. Pennslyvania: university of Pitsaburger cancer cqanter.

Royal college of nursing (2010). Specialist nurses changing lives. Web.

Rosadale, M. (2009). Survivor loniness of women following breast cancer. Oncology nursing forum, 36(2): 175-183.

Sherry, M., & Andra, W. the role of nurse navigator in the breast assesment program at hotel Dieu hospital. n.d. Web.

Viele, C., S. (2007). Oncology nurses role in the care of patients with breast cancer. Web.

Wilkinson S. (2000). Feminism and physcology, 10(4): 431-460. Web.

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