Research has shown that Panax ginseng is one of the natural products that can be very effective in the treatment of diabetes in the United States of America. The prescription of the natural herb on the patient depends on the symptoms of the patient. The main objective of the research is to compare the effectiveness of the herb with western medicines in the treatment of diabetes by investigating the right dosage.
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During the research, this was done by administration of different dosages of Panax ginseng and measuring the effectiveness in reducing the level of blood sugar as well as improved psychological performance. Other than treating diabetes, the herb improves the health and general activity of the body and even prolongs his/her lifespan as the rest of the paper will explain.
Among the most chronic diseases in the United States is diabetes and most of the deaths associated with the disease are out of hyperglycemia which largely affects blood vessels. Among these complications is neuropathy where the patient experiences pain especially if the disease is not properly controlled. The patient also suffers from reduced physical activity and a lack of concentration when sleeping. Most of the control methods employed as therapy for diabetes are based on blood sugar control and designing of programs geared towards controlled diet, reduction in weight if the doctor finds it necessary, as well as exercise. (Pan Tuck, 1993 p.37-41)
According to Lee (1993) “Researchers have found that traditional medicine like ginseng has a lot of similarities to western medicines as far as its goals in controlling symptoms are concerned. However, the two are different in the way they conceptualize, diagnose, and even in treating the disease.” The main aim of the researcher in this project was to find out the main concept and remedies of Panax ginseng which would help in the evaluation and controlling of diabetes. Diabetes is classified into three categories each of which has its unique symptoms although in most of the patients during their illnesses all the symptoms of the three categories may show up.
A number of herbal medicines have now been used to treat several ailments and among them being Panax ginseng has extensively been used in diabetic patient’s treatment and its prescriptions are determined by the symptoms of the patient. The researchers want to find out if the constituents of Panax ginseng exerts effects of hypoglycemic and therefore if treatment of diabetes with this herb can reduce the level of blood sugar and a better feeling of the patient as well as improved psychological performance.
The researcher will investigate the required dosage if it is prescribed at between 100-200mg/day and if when it is administered to a patient, it increases consumption of carbohydrates in his or her body without necessarily increasing the levels of insulin. After a survey the researcher found its prescription to require diagnoses of the patients to find out the type of diabetes they are suffering and also to be done by a trained person and if a possible member of American herbalist guild.
The researcher will confirm the claims that have been made before arguing that ginseng improves one’s health and general body activity as well as extending the lifespan of a human being. It is also believed to be used as a medicine to control depression, fatigue, reduction of aging signs, stress, and vomiting. (Lee, 1993 p.42-49)
According to Yogi (1999) “Natural products comprise of a chemical product found in a living thing which means it is naturally found in nature containing biological activities and can be used as a drug for the purpose of preventing or curing diseases as well as reducing the symptoms.” Most of the natural products require to be synthesized in order to be safely used by human beings but a few do not require complete synthesis because some of them contain complex components which might be too expensive to be synthesized and be supplied on large scale.
Such herbal drugs are penicillin and morphine and the researchers who studied these herbs report that these herbs are usually harvested directly from natural sources and the task can consume a lot of time and sometimes be destructive on the natural habitat. However, despite these limitations, the small components in the natural products inspire most of the approval of important agents leading to the discovery of important drugs to cure recently discovered ailments and other diseases which have not had a cure for a long time.
Therefore these herbal products are important in curing other conditions which are sometimes threatening the life of a human being. The source of these natural products can be from the tissues in terrestrial plants mostly roots as well as from marine organisms. Since chemical diversity depends on biological as well as geographical diversity, researchers make an effort of collecting samples all over the world and making analyses in an effort to discover new drugs. One such effort is on Panax ginseng- A herbal product believed to be able to treat diabetes. (Yogi, 1999pp71-72)
Background of research performed within ginseng for diabetes treatment and significance for its studies
Several types of research have been done regarding the use of Panax ginseng in the treatment of diabetes. Other than the control of the disease, herbal medicine has been found to have other benefits which can add value to the patient with diabetes. Such benefits of ginseng are increased immunity to disease, enhancement of the appetite, regulation of menstrual cycle, and reduction of complication during childbirth.
Research also indicates that Panax ginseng can help in better development of blood vessels which is important when it comes to the treatment of deep injuries. Its effect on the nervous system promotes sexual activity in both human beings and animals especially in the laboratory when there is a need for mating to take place in the animals. (Akita, 199pp72-74)
When Panax ginseng is used to treat diabetes, a number of precautions have to be observed because it has side effects especially when the user is not controlled or when it is taken along with other stimulants like caffeine. For example, if one is consuming a lot of caffeine and happens to be taking Panax ginseng, he or she can suffer from nervousness, lack of sleep, and high blood pressure. Researchers have also advised the patient of diabetes not to use Panax ginseng if they are suffering an acute illness or abnormally high pressure, inconsistent heart rhythm or if she is pregnant. (Van, 1904 pp. 107-108)
Research previously conducted indicated that 3 grams of ginseng given to a patient about 45 minutes ahead of oral administration of glucose greatly reduced glycemia in individuals who were not suffering from diabetes. The research did not find out if the same effect would be achieved if the dosage was less than 3 g and if it was given within a shorter time interval. The main objective of the research was to study the amount of dose of American ginseng and the consequences of different timing in controlling glycemia.
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10 people who were healthy and who were picked at random with an age bracket of 37-49 years and a body mass index between 23.0-25.2 were given15 treatments of between 0-3 g American ginseng at a time interval that raged from 0- 40 minutes ahead of 25 g oral glucose intake challenge. Samples of their blood were taken before the treatment and after every15 minutes starting from the time they took glucose.
The results of the research indicated that the effect of the treatment largely depended on the timing interval but to a very low extent on the dosage. From the results, it was found that the American ginseng has the ability to lessen postprandial glycemia in people without diabetes on the basis of the timing but doses within the range of 1-3 g had the same capacity on the effect. This formed the basis of justification for the use of Panax ginseng in the treatment of patients suffering from diabetes of all types. (Ithaca, 1904 pp108-110)
According to Chuang (1994) “Although there has been a lot of effort to prevent and control cases of diabetes in America and all over the world, the number of individuals suffering from the disease is rising every day posing a lot of concern regarding the methods of treatment which have been used in past to offer a remedy to the disease.” Research has indicated that the majority of patients who are diabetic end up dying prematurely and the field of medicine has now embarked on more effective methods for prevention as well as controlling the disease.
In order to achieve this goal, most researchers have sought several alternatives of the remedies especially in herbal medicine, the most popular being Panax ginseng. However, medical practitioners have warned that several and effective tests need to be done on the individual before medication on ginseng is administered to guarantee the safety as well as the efficacy of the herb. (Chuang, 1994 pp.143-45)
Researchers who have first used animals have found that the use of Panax ginseng in the treatment of diabetes is viable. For example in rodents, ginseng had a significant effect in control of glycemia and the same finding has been found in the studies of the same on human beings. Among the first studies, it was evident that when 200mg per day was administered on a human being for seven weeks of any type of ginseng, there was long-term control of glycemia in the hemoglobin. One of the side effects that go along with such prolonged administration was weight loss beyond healthy levels. However, among the efficacies of the use of Panax ginseng was lessening postprandial glycemia among individuals with diabetes as well as those without and were healthy. (Chuang, 1994 pp.146-48)
The subjects and methods that were employed comprised of 5 men and 5 women with an average age of 42 years from the university students and patients from the hospitals through advertisement. The entire participant agreed to give consent information in writing and the consent had approval from the university where the research was taking place. The treatment involved the entire participants who were randomly given 16 treatments.
To establish the effect of dosage, 0-3 g Panax ginseng was given to the participants in a package of 500-mg tablets. The tablets were made by a combination of three-year-old dry Ontario and finely ground roots from Panax ginseng manufactured by commercial suppliers through the use of proprietary methods. High levels of preservation were observed to guarantee the stability of the medicine and this was achieved through storage of the drugs in a cool and dry place away from the light for all the period of their manufacturing. It was also ensured that the manufactured drugs were used within seven months of their manufacture.
The researcher’s placebo was manufactured using similar capsules with cornflour with an energy content equivalent to that in 2g Panax ginseng. The entire participants were hidden from the identity of both placebo and ginseng by use of codes and by the fact that by nature one could not distinguish the capsules. To trace the impact of timing, both types of treatment were given at 0-40 minute intervals ahead of 25-g glucose that was administered orally as a challenge. It was ensured that all the types of treatment were contained in the same slot before the procedure started.
Every procedure was made to respect the entire guidelines of the world health organization set to be followed while the practitioners are administering tests for tolerance regarding oral glucose. Before the study started, the entire participants went through a session on clinical nutrition as well as risks factors for a period of 14 days. The 14 days were not consecutive but had a break of 2 days and this was purposely meant to lessen the after-effects. Each individual was required to be consistent in his or her diet and to ensure regular exercise a few hours before the succeeding test. He or she was also to take at least 155 grams of carbohydrates on daily basis for two days before the test. Accuracy was observed with the specification of the amount of carbohydrate by asking the participants to fill in a questionnaire regarding their diet and the pattern of their lifestyle and later advising them on the corresponding amount of their daily intake to 155g carbohydrates. (Chen, 1995pp.97-99)
Analysis of blood glucose
Every sample of blood was taken and put inside a test tube in which fluoride oxalate had been put. It was then frozen immediately at a temperature below -25degrees as it waited for analysis which had to be done within three days after it was collected. The concentration of glucose in each sample was measured using the glucose oxidase method that makes use of the YSI 2300 analyzer. (Chen, 1995pp.100-102)
Panax ginseng analysis
According to Chuang (1994) “The energy content and nutritional value of the Panax ginseng, as well as a placebo which is in use today, were measured using standard methods.” All the content including fat, carbohydrate, and protein were measured by the officials from the association of analytical chemists. The curves of blood glucose were plotted to indicate the increase in blood glucose relative to the increase in the area below the curve and this was measured geometrically for every participant without considering those areas under the curve corresponding with blood glucose indicated when fasting. Blood glucose concentration was increased to compensate for the differences in results between one treatment and the other. A number of statistical analyses were then done by use of cruncher statistical system 2000. (Huang, 1995pp102-105)
In the research, the entire participants followed the laid down protocols regarding the study and there was no difficulty encountered. In all the treatments there was no observable adverse effect in the use of Panax ginseng in terms of the dosage as well as timing reported by the participants immediately and even long after testing was done. Although there were differences in the fasting values between one dose and the other these did not cause much significance and also the duration between the administration of Panax ginseng and the oral intake of glucose did not cause a significant pre-prandial hypoglycemic effect.
Effect resulting from treatment dose and timing
The findings from the research indicated that when Panax ginseng is administered to a healthy person; it has the ability to reduce postprandial glycemic response to a dosage of 25-g of glucose by 6% without causing an effect on fasting blood glucose. The effect on postprandial was found to be largely depending on the timing of the administration rather than the dosage but even with the timing, the deference in glycemia was only observed when it was 40 minutes duration between the administration of Panax ginseng and the administration of the oral glucose challenge. There was no effect on glycemia when the effect was let to depend only on the amount of dosage in spite of the fact that the administration of 1-3 grams caused a decrease in glycemia compared with when it was not administered at all.
These lead to the conclusion that for the American Panax ginseng to be effective, the variance that must be observed are the dosage of 1-3 grams as well as the timing of 40 minutes between the administration of the ginseng and the oral administration of glucose meal. When the same dosage was administered together with the glucose without time deference, this caused the disappearance of the effect. (Chuang, 1994 pp143-45)
Side effects of ginseng
When ginseng is used in the treatment of diabetes it may have quite a number of side effects. In as much as it may have the ability to strengthen diabetes and treating the disease, it contains some substances that are active and which are able to cause side effects as well as reacting with other herbs which the person may have taken for unrelated diseases. Because of the uncertainty, ginseng should always be taken with caution and only on prescription by a qualified medical practitioner, especially in botanical medicine.
Although the side effects are known their safety records are good. After a long intake of the Panax ginseng, the person is likely to experience body nervousness. The nervousness goes along with excitability which is known to appear immediately after the administration of the drug and then reduce with time but resume after prolonged use. After use, one reduces the ability to concentrate for a long time, and if it is a case of a student you require a lot of stimulant variation to replenish his or her concentration. Although the main aim of using Panax ginseng in treating diabetes is to cause a reduction in blood sugar, the reduction may exceed the expected limits and this again would be unhealthy. (Chuang, 1994 pp146-47)
Research indicates that Panax ginseng has an effect similar to that of estrogen and therefore it is recommended that it is not taken by mothers who are breastfeeding as well as those who are pregnant. In a few cases research indicates there have been more serious side effects which include asthma and high blood pressure. Panax ginseng also causes palpitation and if the diabetic woman had already reached menopause, it can cause bleeding in the uterus.
The majority of the individuals who have used Panax ginseng in the past say that it has an unpleasant taste. Since Panax ginseng is a stimulant, it is known to cause a lack of sleep especially if one takes a high dosage. It also causes insomnia especially if one takes it shortly before bedtime and a feeling of restlessness and the person suffers from anxiety and diarrhea as well as vomiting and mild headache. Some people have been observed to experience nose bleeding euphoria and for women, they experience breast pain and sometimes bleeding in their virginals. (Chuang, 1994 pp148-49)
Researchers and medical practitioners recommend that if a diabetic who is on Panax ginseng experiences difficulty in breathing or tightness around the throat or near the chest, any chest pain or rash, feeling itchy and suffering from swollen skin administration of Panax ginseng should be immediately stopped and doctors advice be consulted. Reports from researchers show that Panax ginseng can cause a reduction in the desired effect in the medication of blood-thinning.
If it is taken along with aspirin it does not give the desired results and can cause more side effects. For this case, before one takes any dosage of Panax ginseng he or she should consult with the physician. The rating given to the Panax ginseng by the American herbal products association is that of class 2d herb and the association demands application of specific control in its use. (Chuang, 1994 pp150-51)
Benefits and side benefits of Panax ginseng in the treatment of diabetes
Although Panax ginseng is always mistaken with Siberian ginseng and considered to be having the same benefits, it is a great misconception because the latter does not have ginsenosides found in Panax ginseng and which are the active components proved scientifically to be the remedy for diabetes. The use of Panax ginseng has passed the test in both animals and human beings although its safety is still a matter of concern as some of the conditions have the potential to cause serious side effects. Therefore, it requires a thorough evaluation by a qualified medical provider. Other than the reduction in blood glucose, Panax ginseng has several other side benefits to the diabetic. (Mangy, 1991 pp45-46)
According to Mangy (1991) “Researchers indicate that a patient of diabetes who is on Panax ginseng medication has a better thinking and learning ability especially if it is administered at a dosage of between 200mg-400mg on a daily basis for a period of about 12weeks.” Improved thinking is gauged using a measurement that is standard like how long one takes to respond as well as the concentration lifespan. Simple solutions in learning mathematics and logic are also used. These benefits are not only observed in young diabetics but also older ones while other benefits are seen when it is administered as a combination with Ginkgo Biloba. However, there is a very little report on the research conducted regarding this combination. (Mangy, 1991 pp45-46)
Benefits associated with the treatment of type 2 diabetes
According to Kiyohara (1991) “Most studies on Panax ginseng in treating type 2 diabetes report that it reduces blood sugar after eating and even when they are fasting but no clear report has been made regarding its long term use.” So far researchers have not successfully established the most effective dosage which is also safe for human beings suffering from diabetes. Early studies indicated that even though Panax ginseng can cause a reduction in blood sugar below standards, the low levels are not significantly risky. However, further studies on the long-term effects of Panax ginseng on patients with diabetes are very necessary.
Researchers should also find out the level of interaction of Panax ginseng with the current usual non-herbal medicine for diabetes and make a report on the possible risks and remedies. Patients with diabetes are advised to make proper consultation for care from qualified practitioners and should give more proven therapies a priority to Panax ginseng until there are clear reports from the researchers on the effectiveness of Panax ginseng. So far there are no proper reports regarding the effect of Panax ginseng on the treatment of type 1 diabetes which depends on insulin.
Another side benefit of using Panax ginseng in the treatment of diabetes is cancer prevention where several studies indicated that if Panax ginseng is taken by mouth it lowers the probability of one being affected by cancer if such potential existed and this is more so if ginseng extracts are administered. The only challenge with this claim is that most of the studies on this research have been conducted by the same researchers using preliminary designs. Such research may give results that are not genuine due to other effects like people’s lifestyle in body exercise and other habits on diets while at the same time using Panax ginseng. Researchers, therefore, require to conducts more trials before drawing the final conclusion. (Kiyohara, 1991 pp45-46)
Along with the treatment of diabetes, Panax ginseng also side-benefits pulmonary function and improves the capacity of a person to exercise especially if the patient also has the obstructive pulmonary disease. However such claims by the researchers have not been confirmed and need further research. When Panax ginseng is mixed with other herbs, researchers say it can improve the condition of coronary artery disease like chest pain and also reduce some of the abnormalities observed during electrocardiography. These claims also need further research so as to make a clear decision. (Kiyohara, 1991 p46)
Regarding exercise performance, patients with diabetes on Panax ginseng experience improved exercise performance and this is made fairly true by the majority of athletes who use Panax ginseng so as to boost their stamina. What is left unclear is if Panax ginseng taken by mouth would have the desired results of enhanced exercise performance. Again very little research has been done on this claim except for the publications on the claim and therefore it is not reliable.
Early tests on the same around 1980 indicated increased performance on exercise but recent studies have counteracted the former results because they are reporting no effect of Panax side-benefit on exercise performance. (Barns, 1985 pp148-149)
A patient with diabetes who has been administered Panax ginseng is likely to benefit from improvement if he or she is suffering from fatigue irrespective of what could have caused the fatigue. However, the researchers who have conducted studies on this claim argue the claim is not reliable as it is based on preliminary results and is of low quality. The majority of researchers indicate that a person who is diabetic and is on Panax ginseng is likely to have an enhancement in his immunity system because ginseng stimulates immune cells to be more active in the body and so the antibiotics get stimulated.
This is an advantage especially to individuals who are diabetic and at the same time suffer from acute bronchitis. Such a person also tends to have an improved response to vaccines such as influenza. The limitation of this research is that the same author has been publishing the report and therefore it requires more studies to find out the impact of Panax ginseng on particular infections so as to be able to give conclusive information. (Barns, 1985pp149-150)
Research design and methods
The research hypothesis will be to research for Panax ginseng which is a natural product used in diabetes treatment. The objective of the researcher will be to evaluate the risks and benefits of Panax ginseng for diabetes treatment. Panax ginseng which is herbal medicine has been associated with the solution to a series of health problems has been facing a lot of challenges because most of the studies conducted by earlier researchers have not had proved.
They have been using preliminary methods and therefore further research needs to be conducted in the present and in the future so as to be able to give a solid conclusion that can be relied on in the treatment of the claimed illnesses. Before then most people are advised to continue giving priority to the already proven drugs. One of such claims of effects of Panax ginseng which has gained a lot of popularity is in the cure of diabetes type 2 along with many other associated side benefits. The researcher wanted to find out the accuracy of the claim in the effectiveness of using Panax ginseng in treating diabetes and also investigate the alleged side benefits as well as side effects to the diabetic who is being administered on the Panax ginseng. (Linnet, 1985 pp150-151)
Type of experimental design
The researcher will use the response type of experimental design where an extract from Panax ginseng berry will be used. This will have been manufactured by a pharmaceutical industry based in China and will be one batch. Fresh berry will first be mixed with ethanol at a ratio of 1:3 and crushed to remove the extracts and then the seeds will be removed while the pulp will be collected and kept in a refrigerator. The pulp will be removed and kept back in the refrigerator after evaporating the ethanol. Distilled water will then be added to the solution so as to rinse all the ethanol and the solution will be filtered again.
The resulting solution will then be mixed with butane-1-ol and then remove the layer of the water before evaporating the butane-1-ol. The final solution obtained will be lyophilized and it’s component taken to the laboratory for analysis using chromatography. (Linnet, 1985 p152)
The above procedure will also be used to prepare another set of Panax ginseng extract from roots. These roots will have been gotten from one of the pharmaceutical industries in China. The two will be compared by the use of high-performance chromatography. A chemical structure will be shown using a figure on the concentration of the components. This will first be intended to find out if the concentration of the components in the two was the same and if different then it be established which is higher. Ginsenoside from china will however be analyzed in the laboratory to confirm that its purity is above 99%. (Kim, 1995pp.202-203)
The study population will comprise of animals because of the unethical nature of the procedures on human beings and bearing in mind that the researcher is experimenting with this for the first time. The animal that the researcher will choose will be a mouse. However, the study protocol will demand that approval is obtained from the committee that deals with the care of animals suitably from the University of Chicago. Male mice will be bought from Michael’s laboratory together with its lean littermate and they will be housed in an environment that will be under control in terms of condition regarding light and food. Food will be denied only when the mice will be fasting before every experiment. The mice that will be used by the researcher will be 9-10 weeks old.
Methods for data collection
Panax ginseng berry will be dissolved using PVP-10 as a solvent but it will then be evaporated. In every experiment, the extract will be rinsed using distilled water and then injected at a dose of 50 mg/kg. Another dose of 5, 15, 25 mg/kg will also be prepared using PVP-10 solution for a similar administration. A control experiment will comprise of the same type of animals of the same age injected with PVP-10 equimolar solution and the two groups of animals will be compared to find out if there would be any restlessness or any irritation caused by any of the drugs. Observable changes like distress in respiration and abnormal movement would also be recorded after every drug administration. (Kang, 1995pp.203-205)
Data analysis procedures
Blood glucose will be measured and the levels of insulin in the serum will also be measured to find out the level of glucose tolerance. A small sample of blood will be extracted from the tail of the mice for both fed and fasting mouse to be used to measure the levels of glucose as well as serum insulin. The experiment will take off at 8:00 A.M immediately after the mouse are fed and then blood will be extracted from one of the mice immediately while the other will be allowed to fast for 3 hours.
This will be done on day 0 when there will be no treatment administered to any of the mice. The same procedure will be repeated on day 4 during treatment and still another one on day 10 which will be the last day of the treatment. All the measurements of the levels of blood glucose will be made using a glucose analyzer while those of the serum insulin will be measured using an insulin kit that is highly sensitive. A tolerance test (IPGTT) will be done on the 0 day and 10th day.
During the test days, the mice will be fasted for three hours starting from 8:00 A.M and then be given an administration on the 2g/kg glucose. Levels in blood glucose will be measured using blood samples from the tails of the mouse before administration of glucose and then a similar measurement will be repeated after every 30 minutes from the time glucose will be administered. (Kang, 1995pp.203-205)
During the administration of Panax ginseng, the animals will be given the berry extract for Panax ginseng for 10 days consecutively where on the 7th day, the catheterization will be done through the right internal jugular vein. The animals will have first been put under anesthesia to reduce the pain which would otherwise cause distress. The catheter will be externalized by making an incision through the skin flap at the head vertex and the mouse will be given time to recover within 3 days from day 7 to day 10 while at the same time treatment will continually be administered on days 8 and 9 but no more treatment will be administered afterward.
Clamp studies will then be done on day 10 when the mice will be awake and therefore under no strain. Glucose and insulin will both be administered through the same catheter put in the jugular vein. A syringe system with two channels will be used in order to regulate the infusion rate. (Felicia, 1991pp68-69)
Food consumption and how it will be monitored
The mice will be kept in a cage that will be specially designed for metabolic purposes with food kept in a chamber that can not allow the mouse to enter its body beyond its head. Another compartment will be used in collecting food pellets that might spill where care will be observed so that the food is not contaminated when being collected. The amount of food that the mice will have eaten will be known by getting the difference of the food initially in the cage and the amount of it left in the cage together with the one that will have spilled after every 24 hours.
Measurement of body temperature and the expenditure in energy
The researcher will use a thermocouple probe to measure the body temperature in each mouse at day 0 and then after every 3 days and the time of measurement will always be at 3:30 P.M. This will be done by inserting the thermocouple into the mice’s rectum about 1cm deep so as to record the temperature. The researcher will measure the oxygen consumption rate by using an oxymax which is a chamber that will have been connected to an air flowing at a rate of 17 liters/minute for 3 hours at room temperature taken to mean 273 Kelvin (25 degrees Celsius).
The flow of the air will be controlled and measurement taken using a flow meter and the composition of the gas coming out which is carbon (IV) oxide will be detected using a carbon (IV) oxide analyzer and another detector for sensing the remaining oxygen. These analyzers will be calibrated on daily basis using special cylinders that are standard and can hold gas mixtures with particular concentrations of both gases but in addition nitrogen gas.
Both mice will be taken in the chamber and allowed to respire for a period of one hour. After the first hour, the researcher will conduct regular monitoring with a time interval of 5 minutes using a system that is computerized and with an open circuit calorimeter. To allow for calculations, the researcher will be interfacing with the instruments using the computer. (Felicia, 1991pp69-70)
Statistical data analysis
Data will be converted as means +/- SE to find out if there is a significant difference between the mouse treated with the drug and the one not treated and also the effect of administration of the drug by comparing the response of the mouse after and before the administration.
Anticipated problems in the study and how to cope with them
The study will be a complex procedure and involving human beings will receive a poor response unless it is taking place in a hospital with a real patient with diabetes. Even though this is possible, the researcher considered having the trial first with the mice and then from the observed response of Panax ginseng and the behavior of the mice a relative conclusion can be drawn. Several other observations will be made by making a similar experiment but every time focusing on a different behavior until all the uncertainty that has not been proved by the earlier scientists has been cleared. (Chuang, 1994 pp.146-48)
The other problem anticipated will be access to the equipments of high accuracy because they may be costly and some may require hiring or requesting for assistance from special institution dealing with animal care. In order to solve this problem, the researcher will have allocated enough funds to manage the project and where assistance will be needed communication will be done in good time to avoid situation of last minute rush.
Where the distance will not allow physical access for the researcher, letters will be written in advance as well as electronic mails where the other means may not apply. Chance of breaking the law by interfering with animals for the purpose of study may arise if permission has not been authorized and therefore a letter of approval by the respective committee dealing with the care for animals will be requested in good time. (Felicia, 1991pp68-69)
Some of the machine for measurement requires specialized skills to avoid recording of erroneous results. The researcher will not take chances and will undergo proper training prior to the study time. Where assistance has to be sought a technician will be hired to give accurate readings. Some mice might be having health problems prior to the study and this might give fake response to the panax ginseng. To cope with this problem, all the mice undergoing the research process will have to be tested to confirm their healthy status. (Chuang, 1994 pp.146-48)
After the research the researcher will come up with better results to prove if panax ginseng obtained from the herb is better in treating diabetes than the already confirmed drugs. The researcher will also record all the observation regarding the side benefits that go along with the treatment of diabetes using panax ginseng as well as the side effects it may have and also how to counter the side effects.
Since diabetes is the major problem being addressed by this researcher, it is also important for the community to be taught on the main causes of diabetes so that they first concentrate on the preventive measures before the question of treatment comes in. According to the researchers from Chinese, diabetes is largely caused by improper diet that contains a lot of sugar and fats. Such food includes sweets, greasy food, and hot drinks like coffee and tea. People who are regular consumers of alcohol are also known to be more prone to diabetes than non-alcoholics. If a person is undergoing high emotional disturbances like stress, depression and anxiety he or she is also likely to surfer diabetes. (Chuang, 1994 pp.146-48)
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