This research proposal will aim at exploring the co-dependency prevalence among individuals with diversified health issues. An individual with certain health conditions can at times be challenged by the tendencies in regard to the behaviors depicted by the caregivers. Current literature does not adequately correlate to the co-dependency and the individuals who suffer from a certain health condition. As such, this research proposal constitutes of the problem, review of the relevant literature on co-dependency, data analysis, and the findings of the research as well as the implications brought about by the research to be conducted in the future.
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To establish whether or not there existed a considerable level of co-dependency among the individuals under certain health conditions and the caregivers, a sample of S=20 individuals under health conditions referred to the caregivers will be given a questionnaire in an effort towards accessing the co-dependency levels as signified by the sampled population of those individuals. Some specific responses to questionnaires will be such that they will reveal that co-dependency among persons under certain conditions and caregivers is a way that pertains to the intrinsic view of an individual and as such, it is supported by the review of the literature. This research proposal will aim at providing the next generation caregivers as well as the researchers with an ideal way of viewing co-dependency and thereby serving as a foundation concerning the studies to be done on the same.
The notion of co-dependency in most cases encompasses various behavioral characteristics, which at most times have a relationship with numerous environmental variables as well as social factors. The recent researches do not explain the correlations depicted by caregivers’ co-dependency and the individuals suffering from certain conditions. Moreover, there is a lack of interventions aimed towards assisting the caregivers to recognize not only the development of the co-dependency but also the behavioral attributes.
This research proposal will aim at exploring the prevalence of co-dependency among individuals with certain medical conditions with their guardians.
Statement of Research Problem
The recent years have seen growing volumes of studies conducted on the co-dependency phenomenon and its effects on behaviors. Looking back at the yesteryears, the concept has encountered challenges resulting from the fact that the construct focuses its endeavors on the achievement of definition that is operational and capable of being applied universally. In more than a decade, the construct has been operationalized making use of measuring tools that are standardized and which are used to measure co-dependency existing among people. The Co-dependence concept prevalence can be attributed to tendencies in behaviors among individuals in regard to relationships, which are both functional and dysfunctional. This stage in the evolution of co-dependency lacks a focus isolated enough in regard to the co-dependency correlated effects and pertaining to a certain population that will be targeted. Individuals with certain health conditions can be challenged, in a unique way, by the tendencies of behaviors as shown by their caregivers. This is indeed problematic
The correlation signified by the relation between the individual with certain conditions and the caregivers and the interventions aimed at helping the caregivers to identify the behaviors, which are co-dependent, will also be the focus of the underlying study.
Purpose of the study
Primarily, this research proposal will aim at testing the hypothesis as forwarded by clinical staffs in various clinics that, there are increased rates of co-dependency in guardians referred for treatment of their individuals with certain health conditions. The clinics from which the information will be gathered are those that deal with outpatients and which put a focus on diversified health conditions. The secondary purpose of the research proposal will be to analyze the relationship existing between the guardians who show significant scores of co-dependency as well as the actual diagnosis in regard to the individuals with certain health conditions made by both the medical as well as the clinical staff who provide treatment immediately a person comes to seek treatment.
A positive correlation exists as shown by the guardians’ co-dependency scores and the health diagnosis of individuals with certain health conditions. Still, the level of co-dependency shown by the referred guardians is significantly high.
Historically, co-dependency can be said to have been a condition, which has been predicated upon factors related to dependency on chemicals. In regard to the recent research studies, it is evident that co-dependency does exist autonomously of addictions related to chemicals. By regarding co-dependency as a framework, not dependent on the chemicals, can actually provide a perspective that can be said to be an alternative form which factors associated with co-dependency can be observed. In respect to the research concerning co-dependency, the research will resonate with some specific themes, that is, internalization of patterns and ideas in co-dependency predictors as well as solutions aimed at addressing co-dependency. Therefore, the purpose of this review of the literature is to explore the fore mentioned categories and the relevant literature, which is relevant to co-dependency.
Internalizing Ideas and Patterns of Behaviour in Co-dependency
A plethora of researches exists and gives support to the co-dependency concept. This is seen due to the fact that the researches heighten the discussion in regards to the way the people with co-dependency associate or relate with each other. The conclusions to the research conducted by Wright & Wright (1999) indicate that co-dependency is a relationship pattern. The original research on co-dependency however paid much focus on the attributed related to relationships. This is indeed an additional finding such that, they identified the patterns of relating as signified in the relationships, which were dysfunctional as cropping out of what the scholars regard as a distinctive personality syndrome characterized by co-dependency (Wright & Wright, 1999, pp.527)
In support of co-dependency as a syndrome, it can be said that the literature available tends to build on the underlying concept and as such, it seeks to constitute the components that have been internalized. In the research study conducted by Wells, Glickauf-Hughes, & Jones (1999), an investigation was conducted with an aim of examining empirically the proposed association that existed between the proneness to shame and the co-dependency, parentification as well as self-esteem. In that particular research, proneness to guilt was exclusively examined in order to establish if the dependency conceptualization as an adaptation, which is based on shame, should indeed be compromised by guilt. This study mainly focused on the determination of the need for the inclusion of the observations, which are clinical, with respect to co-dependency.
In the study, the findings tend to reflect co-dependency as a way that is specific enough to view oneself as opposed to the way of response in regard to a certain behavior (Wells, Glickauf-Hughes, & Jones, 1999). In this study, it can be said that the study does give support to the co-dependency as a fundamental support and as such, it is a behavior whose basis is an internal sense, that is, the deprivation of emotions, as well as self-confidence, waning. The rehabilitation of the individual with certain conditions may result in the individuals faced by the inability to detach from their normal life, a situation signified by the fact that one has some obligations, self-sufficiency inhabitants as well as independence. As such, the case of co-dependency tends to develop into a learned behavior. Moreover, the behavior tends to be perpetuated in the individual’s life, to whom the care is being given.
Adding to the fact that co-dependency is regarded as a relation pattern as well as a syndrome, some studies have come up and which, tend to disregard the fact that co-dependency is a disorder in the actual sense.
Loughead & Yuan-Yu ting (1998) conducted research and according to the findings of the study, the character traits of a diagnostic category concerning the disorder in the personality co-dependent disorder, which had been proposed. In the study, a diagnostic criterion is proposed. Moreover, according to the recommendations of the study, it was presumed that the people who co-depend use a massive amount of energy in trying to improve the life of others such that the person being assisted is able to establish his or her self worth. This strain is harmful to these caregivers as in most cases; they end up suffering from distortions of boundaries and anxiety.
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All these results due to separation as well as intimacy. There are also a large number of scholarly articles where the researchers have increasingly shown efforts towards comj8ing up with the description as well as the definition of co-dependency, whereby they term it as a process chose development is attributable to not only on dependency in emotions but also on the choices made. Hoogstad (2008) conducted a research study and from his discussions, we can infer how the development of dependency on emotions arises while making use of theory as well as the theoretical foundation. Further, the research indicates that the notion of the theory of choice indeed tend to propose that humans motivation comes internally and this motivation is due to five interior premises in a person, that is, the need for; freedom, power, fun, love as well as the sense of belonging. In order to get these needs fulfilled, the focus of choice theory comes into force and hence becomes the basis of the direction assumed by the research study.
In regard to this theory, the individuals are involved usually assumed to be the victims, the prosecutor, or even the rescuer in the course of their interactions. As such, those that assume the status of victims, have a tendency to believe that, when their circumstances are put into consideration, they have no choice whatsoever as they keep in mind that, they are powerless (Hoogstad, 2008, pp.65). On the other hand, rescuers tend to have their relationships secured by ensuring that other individuals are dependent on that person that in themselves feel that they desire to rescue. In the choice theory, both the victim as well as the rescuer is defined as showing a relationship, which is co-dependently in nature. This is because they need each other in an effort towards accommodation of what they perceive individually as missing within them. The prosecutors usually have no other option than just to resort to extremities in control. This, according to them is ideal in controlling in order to ensure that their lives encompass important people.
Both the victim as well as the prosecutor too has a co-dependent relationship. In this tri-part interaction, the trends in behaviors involved are referred to as the Karpman Triangle. This is because the triangle has its basis on fear and as such, the notion of fear indeed is predominant while making decisions.
According to Hoogstad (2008, pp.65), he concludes that those individuals, who are entirely dependent, in most cases do not come to establish most of the basic premises of the Choice theory; the choices that they make encompass many of the habits, which can be termed as disconnecting. Such habit includes complaining, criticizing, blaming, and rewarding among others.
Feminist perspectives on co-dependency
Some other literature argues against the notion of co-dependency, that is when researchers proposed to the view of feminism started focusing on co-dependency as a stronghold when women are taken into consideration and therefore not necessarily an attribute characterized with negativity. As such, not all co-dependency aspects can be termed as negative or maladaptive. In research studies conducted within the perspective of feminism, there are attributes, which are positive in nature that can be identified and therefore, utilized when exploring the notion of co-dependency. The focus put on the co-dependency characteristics, which are positive, have a tendency of providing a perspective that is more balanced in regard to the overall concept of co-dependency. There is a need for co-dependency to be evaluated when behaviors seem to be maladaptive and thereby beginning to affect the self-confidence of an individual as well as the management of stress.
In those relationships that are dysfunctional as well as those involving a substance abuser, the resultant thing is that while the person in addiction can take the blame game mostly to the chemical as the main cause of their problems, the individual who is co-dependent is usually blamed in the context that he is sicker than the victim of addiction himself (Granello, 1998, pp.348).
Materials and Methods
The various clinics selected in this research proposal admit approximately twenty cases of individuals with certain mental conditions. This regards the total population that the researcher will select for the purpose of the study. Out of these cases, the researcher is hopeful that he will obtain the consent of ten guardians of the individuals with a certain mental condition, and upon their consent; they will fill in the study’s questionnaire. The researcher expects that out of these guardians, 95% will return the questionnaires, which are valid for the research to ensue. Therefore, the size of the sample will be 75% of the whole population.
The study will employ both quantitative and qualitative studies. Behavioral tendencies of the care givers will be the main focus as far as individuals with certain mental conditions are concerned. The study will not incorporate an investigative process. The researcher will tend to embark on questionnaires that are administered to the guardians who have the ability to fill in the questionnaire forms. As such, the researcher will therefore develop questions that are easy to comprehend and which the guardians will find easy and enjoyable to fill.
Ideally, I would like to take at least a day at each medical facility and administer the questionnaires to the guardians. If there a challenge faced, I will therefore request the medical facility coordinator to do so. On the completion and collection of all questionnaires, a review will be done. The responses from the guardians having relevant responses will have to be interviewed and as such, they will be asked to give responses to a predetermined series of questions, which are relevant to the study.
Data Collection and Recording
Once the questionnaires have been filled, they will be collected from the guardians from the respective medical facilities. A review will be done with respect to the questionnaires in an effort towards determining their validity for the research. Recording of the data collected by the researcher will be done using a computer and more specifically, Microsoft database and spreadsheets will be used for the purpose. This is ideal as not only the consecutive data analysis processes will be enhanced but also the information will be derived.
Data Analysis Procedure
After recording the data in a computer system, an analysis process will take effect and as such, the information will be derived from the process. The researcher has decided that he will make use of the data analysis technique that is available. To make the process easier, computer-based techniques will be used. To be specific, the methods will be comprised of; Statistical Package for Social Science, Microsoft access as well as Microsoft excel software. There will be the development of t-tests, correlation table, and charts as well as graphical analysis by the researcher. Presentation of data will be through pie charts, statements, graphs, correlation tables, and tables.
There will be an intention of the study by the researcher to exempts since neither discomfort nor harm will be anticipated on the participants. Physical procedures will not be incorporated in this research and therefore, there will be no harm in regard to the physical nature of the participants. The researcher will have to understand that the harm attributed to physiology is possibly an outcome of the guardian filling in the questionnaire, having the secrets of the participants invaded, and protection, which is inadequate in regards to the data confidentiality that has been voluntarily given.
As such, all precautionary measures will be observed to maintain the underlying privacy in regard to the participants as well as the confidence in the data gathered. The identifiers used to select the participants in the study will be separated from the data to be taken and thereafter destroyed in an effort towards elimination of the likelihood of insufficient protection concerning confidentiality. There will be no written records aimed at linking the participants of the research study. Moreover, no list will be retained, which in it has the individuals that participated. The data were taken on issues regarded as sensitive, for instance, data on legal background, alcohol, or drug usage will not be sought in this study. Consent for the treatment as well as the assessment will have to be obtained and as such, it is a routine aspect in regards to the process of intake at the various medical facilities.
Granello, D. H. (1998). Reconceptualising co-dependency in women: A sense of connectedness, not pathology. Journal of Mental Health Counselling, 20(4), 344-358.
Hoogstad, J. (2008). Choice theory and emotional dependency. International Journal of Reality Therapy, 28(1), 63-68.
Loughead, T. & Yuan-yu ting. (1998). Diagnostic indicators of co-dependency: An investigation using MCMI-II. Journal of Mental Health Counselling, 20(1), 64-77.
Wells, M., Glickauf-Hughs, C., & Jones, R. (1999). Co-dependency: A grass roots constructs relationship to shame-proneness, low self-esteem, and parentification. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 27, 63-71.
Wright, P., & Wright, K. (1999). The two faces of co-dependent relating: A research-based perspective. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 21(4), 527-544.