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Contemporary Approaches to Lifestyle Management Research Paper

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Updated: Mar 29th, 2022


Smoking rates in Australia have reduced significantly since the 1940s, a period when approximately 70 percent of men in the country smoked. During 2007, the smoking rates stood at 27 percent for men and 18 percent for women. Although Australian smokers of all ages are warned of the dangers of smoking cigarette packs, they have repeatedly ignored this notion, and though avoidable, cigarette smoking has continued to cause deaths and disability across the world (Khot & Polmear 2006). Smoking has created a heavy load on Australia’s public health and its health care system through morbidity which has led to the rise in mortality rates. Currently, 21 percent of the male adult male population and 19 percent of the adult female smoke (Spoehr 2005). Even though Australia is one of the countries which has implemented a majority of international health provisions, smoking is still a preeminent public health issue since policies dealing with tobacco control is a most rigorous process in Australia (Spoehr 2005).


Tobacco has been cited as a significant cause of death compared to other drugs, causing approximately 89 percent of deaths in Australia that are related to drugs (Travis 2004, p. 13). Smokers are at risk of developing various forms of cancer such as lung, mouth, nasal, pancreas, and kidney cancer. Heart disease is also a potential risk factor for smokers. Chronic obstructive disease (COPD), stroke, and Emphysema are also health conditions that are imposed by long-term smoking. Peripheral vascular disease can also be caused by smoking because it results in the narrowing and ultimately blockage of the leg arteries. Smoking also imposes serious health risks during pregnancy and childbirth, which include fetal growth, bleeding when pregnant, and low birth weight (Spoehr 2005, p. 235).

Healthcare professionals such as paramedics have an important role in controlling the level of smoking in the public. Paramedics can be of significant help in increasing the awareness of the dangers of smoking by use of education, constant communication with patients, and use of informational campaigns. With this respect, it is important that paramedic practitioners not involve themselves in smoking to help in controlling the rates of smoking in the Australian population (Khot & Polmear 2006).

4-week Management Plan

Week 1

The first step towards reducing the smoking levels at the individual level is to determine the personal smoking habits such as the frequency of smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and the level of the urge to smoke. This is important in determining the duration through which the plan to stop smoking at the individual level will stop. In addition, it is important to establish the personal goals and the main objectives behind quitting. The temptation that may hinder the effectiveness of the quitting program has to be identified during the first week of the management plan (Travis 2004).

Week 2

Since cigarette smoking is addictive, the reduction plan is not just abrupt, rather focuses on the gradual reduction till one quits completely. This week will entail the use of stop smoking aids such as nicotine inhalers and stop smoking pills, which are helpful in the management of nicotine withdrawal symptoms and reducing the level of cravings for cigarette smoking. In addition, this week will involve psychological and Nicotine replacement therapy.

Week 3

This week is mainly concerned with avoiding instances of total or partial relapse. The potential temptations identified in the first week of the program are avoided completely. In addition, it will entail training methods are aimed at eliminating nicotine cravings and undertaking breathing exercises.

Week 4

This week will primarily entail determining if the quit smoking plan was effective. It will also entail avoiding the dependency on the stop smoking aids and relying on personal decisions to stay a quitter. It is ultimately the beginning of a smoke-free life

Evaluating the effectiveness of the plan

A key indicator for the effectiveness of the plan is the complete avoidance of cigarette smoking and related products. This guarantees lack of relapse after the quit smoking program.


The effectiveness of a lifestyle management plan for quitting cigarette smoking entirely lies in the commitment of an individual towards living a smoke-free lifestyle. This requires a strict follow-up of the established plan to realize the positive result.


Khot A & Polmear, A 2006, Practical General Practice: Guidelines for Effective Clinical Management, Elsevier Health Sciences, Philadelphia.

Spoehr J 2005, State of South Australia: trends & issues, Wakefield Press, Kent Town.

Travis WD 2004, Pathology and genetics of tumours of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart, IARC, Lyon, France.

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