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From the above diagram, it is apparent that the people subsystem may be effective when the incentives are properly matched with the responsibilities assigned to an individual in an organization.
As a result, there will be optimal performance within acceptable organization behavior that will make an employee responsive to team work and learning initiatives (Andreadis 2009). Generally, the people subsystem may be declared effective when there is a balance in each of the above elements in a learning organization environment.
Factors affecting organizational effectiveness
Organizations function best when the intra and inter communication systems are perfect. Therefore, successful organizations manage information continuously. The practice of information management involves the science of processing information to facilitate informed decision making among managers.
However, the channels of this information should be protected to ensure protection of the organization’s private information that may lead to the unwanted third party interference. In information system implementation planning strategy, culture defines all aspects of a business, both internal and external relationships.
In encoding and decoding information, it is critical to balance the wanted and unwanted grapevine. Thus, in reviewing performance based on feedback received, it is important to handle the voluntary information with care to boost trust and confidentiality which form the pinnacle of organizational behavior.
Therefore, it is critical to balance the feedback with the goals of such an organization as a remedy towards inclusiveness and active participation which translates into desirable performance.
Generally, a risk is regarded as a negative factor in the introduction of new technology in an organization because of its associated downside exposure to unrealized benefits, technical; performance shortfalls, time slippage, cost overruns, and withdrawal of the staff who may feel sidelined.
It is imperative to have a good strategy to manage the risks associated with the adoption of new concepts such as technological efficiency. Estimation and evaluation of risk is an assumption that it is possible to draw logical conclusions regarding the chance of a risk occurring, as well as the possible effect of that risk.
Risks can also be categorized as a short-term or a long term risk. Determination of short term risks assists in mitigating long term effects which may result from neglected short-term risks. Through training of the evaluation and performance reviewers, it is possible to boost morale and maintain desirable confidence levels within stakeholders and staff in any organization.
The process should be inclusive of structured evaluation and progress reporting tools to make the organization effective (Andreadis 2009).
Ethics can be applied in any organization. Basically, ethics denote sets of laws or moral systems that provide a basis for discerning whether an action is correct or erroneous. Therefore, members of an organization can come up with ethical principles that guide them when carrying out their duties.
There should be laid down structures formulated in to keep staff in healthy and stable mind in their duty of serving the interests of an organization through regulatory ethical communication models. These models define expected behavior, procedural patterns, and response to every deviation. Organizational behavior should be aligned within four models.
These models are the motivation to acquire, bond, comprehend, and defend. Therefore, a proactive behavior control system should function within a structured reward system (Andreadis 2009). When the system functions within accepted parameters, employees will eventually develop a self consciousness to deliver quality services and defend the organization as part of a family unit.
Reflectively, setting an objective and then designing a method to achieve is a common practice in every organization. All the organizations follow the norm but few are able to achieve or exceed the set objectives. The difference of result is due to the approach taken by the organization. The organizations which are able to implement and manage their resources in effective and efficient manner stand out from the rest.
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The phenomenon is termed as strategic planning and systems management through focusing. Through focusing, the organization is able to shift risks and costs arising from losses from substandard goods supplied in scenarios where management makes representations on areas concerning the quality of the product.
This reduces administrative costs while increasing chances of the company’s profitability as the operations become streamlined (Von-Bertalanffy 2002).
The main positive influencers of good organization behavior include motivation, empowerment, and training. Reflectively, these factors should be internalized in an organization to foster proactive attitude among the staff. Among the motivation enhancing practices include incentives, promotions, rewards, and recognition.
The effectives of these components depend on vertical, horizontal, and work alignments. Therefore, the feedback system management system may influence positive or negative perception among employees. This will eventually determine the effectiveness of such an organization (Bass 1990).
The aspect of planning is important to demystify poor performance as part of employee redundancy. Reflectively, proper use of competency review system is directly proportional to employee performance since the magnitude of success depends on social interaction skills.
Therefore, organizational effectiveness should be the cornerstone for modeling acceptable behavior between the management and staff (Sinclair 2010). However, the policies adopted should be aligned to the basic building blocks of performance and scope of the organization. These policies should incorporate employee-employer relationship model, performance review, and organizational social culture.
Organizational development has been defined as a process of fostering developing within the organizational set ups through the adoption of a cycle of well planned intervention approaches aimed at enhancing the general efficiency of an organization at the same time bettering the positions of a majority of its members.
Unlike the traditional business promotion systems where bettering the financial well-being of an organization was important, organizational development has other new processes and emphasizes on the use of greater understandings and fostering good relationships as a critical way to achieve growth in organizations.
Thus, organizational development pays more attention to relationships between organizations and their surrounding environments solely for the betterment of organizations.
Human process based intervention strategies are presented as basically aimed at making an improvement to the general state of relationships between individuals and within and among groups in an organizational set up. To attain this, a sensitive form of training is carried out to ensure that both manager and employee teams remain accommodative to the basic needs of their counterparts.
An emotion testing program is introduced to test the emotional position of employees towards each other after which a counseling session is held to ensure that employees care much about the social needs of their counterparts (Lipshitz, Friedman and Popper 2007).
The main driving point in these particular approaches is the argument that the good state of relations, information transfer, and collaboration are essential in fostering good environments for the flourishing of an organization.
Different sets of surveys should be frequently carried out in organizations in order to pinpoint the major areas warranting changes. This is necessary for the general betterment of operations in such organizations.
Simply put, human based intervention strategies in organizational development are aimed at creating a working environment filled with harmonious working relationships as a major competitive advantage in the ever changing business environment.
On the other hand, techno-structural intervention strategies are listed as entailing the incorporation of social-technical systems in various sections of an organization ranging from the business operational processes to the organizational structures among other areas (Olmstead 2002).
Common strategies in this main category include the enlargement and enrichment of staff jobs within an organization as well as the creation of alternative work schedules.
Techno structural strategies are generally aimed at transforming the general working conditions an environment of workers in order to attain maximum outputs from their work. Job enlargement involves the creation of additional tasks to particular job categories whereas job enrichment entails the spicing up of particular jobs in order to make them more attractive to those who perform them.
Irrespective of the size of an organization, productive and counterproductive behaviors influence productivity of that organization. Besides, they form the basic building units of organizational psychology. Thus, comprehensive understanding of these opposite behavior orientation is vital towards maximizing productive behavior while minimizing counterproductive one.
Therefore, it is factual that productive behavior is directly and positively proportional to productivity level exhibited in an organization. Generally, it promotes and encourages goal achievement within an organization. The counterproductive behavior limits productivity within an organization.
In most cases, this unwanted behavior adopts the form of drug abuse, sexual harassment, alcoholism, employee absenteeism among other vices that are oppositely skewed towards company goals. Generally, this unwelcomed behavior is often associated with ineffective performance (Andreadis 2009).
In order to understand the impacts of productive and counterproductive behaviors on performance and productivity, it is necessary to establish the scope and characteristic of each behavior module. As indicated in the above definition, productive behavior is desired in an organization since it promotes optimal productivity and is in line with the goals and set targets of the organization.
It takes the form of professionalism, organization, respect, optimal performance, and discipline. Therefore, productive behavior stresses to the employee the need for an active cooperation between them and the roles assigned in the planning and execution of the set targets for the assigned roles.
Specifically, productive behavior identifies a range of problem situations facing the organization in their social environment, and generates multiple alternative solutions to those problems and lays a series of procedures that are necessary to achieve desired results (Britt & Jex, 2008).
This will be achieved through discussions and structured activities that involve hypothetical and real interpersonal problem situations designed to help teach the employees problem solving skills. In this scenario, the junior employees and those in advanced stages will require the same set of procedures to help them solve the problems.
Besides, productive behavior puts emphasis on advanced maladaptive behaviors because they provide perfect scenario for understanding the situation and offer comprehensive solutions.
In an organization environment, productive behavior will give the employees an opportunity to benefit from the feedback and experiences from their peers and learn anticipated obstacles in implementing the acquired skills that promote productivity (Spector 2008).
To increases productive behavior, it is vital to create healthy work environment and personal growth perspectives that apply to all situations since problems that each individual faces at an interpersonal level ultimately affect the group. In carrying out an in-depth enquiry to each employee’s personal life, organizational psychologists should endeavor to determine which behavioral therapy best suits the individual.
Thus, through properly designed training procedures, talent promotion, and motivation, productive behavior internalization will present that individual with the best alternative ways of solving problems he or she faces in role execution (Sinclair 2006).
For an organization to succeed in calculating relevant organs, departments, and channels for addressing and promoting productive behavior, there must be an all round objective working relationship with the employees.
Since all the working class adults in most organizations use up half and plus of their waking hours in work place, employers are given a very unique opportunity to establish and monitor a desirable culture to improve and maintain a healthy workforce.
These may be in the form of psychological, experience, value and beliefs, attitudes, and group common interests (Brit and Jex 2008). Unless they take a positive attitude to embrace change and create an environment that motivated change, quantifiable change may just be a dream.
Specifically, a good working environment should be flexible, relevant, and comfortable within set measurement standards that support intrinsic and extrinsic relationship environment has on performance of employees.
However, these measures should be specific to a work environment, skills of employees, and goals of an organization. Besides, it is important to consider the size of an organization and nature of its duties.
Organizational behavior is influenced by several factors such as motivation, promotion, and structured feedback system within any industry. However, policies aimed at balancing performance and behavior should be aligned to the goals of an organization to make it effective.
Andreadis, N 2009, “Learning and organizational effectiveness: A systems perspective,” Performance Improvement, vol. 48 no. 1, pp. 5-11.
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Lipshitz, R., Friedman, V.J., & Popper, M 2007, Demystifying organizational learning, Thousand Oaks, California.
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Sinclair, M 2010, Fear and Self-Loathing in the City: A Guide to Keeping Sane in the Square Mile, Karnac Books, London.
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