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Parenting styles are psychological strategies that describe the different methods of bringing up children. The most common styles of parenting were described by Diana Baumrind, whose research led to a classification of these methods (Ciccarelli and White 21).
She began with a description of the four basic elements she considered important in successful parenting. These elements include responsiveness, unresponsiveness, demanding, and undemanding (Nasrollahzade, Mahmoudfakhe, and Rahmani, 147). The four parenting styles emerging from the combination of these elements are propagative/authoritative, totalitarian/authoritarian, indulgent, and neglect.
Authoritative parenting is both demanding and responsive (Nasrollahzade, Mahmoudfakhe, and Rahmani 147). In this form of parenting, parents expect high levels of maturity from their children. In addition, the style is child-centered (Ciccarelli and White 21). The authoritarian parenting style was described as demanding but not responsive.
Punishments are common, and the parents are restrictive. In the third style of parenting, which is indulgent parenting, the parent is responsive but not demanding (Ciccarelli and White 21). Neglectful parenting is not responsive or demanding. In this form of parenting, the parent is detached and uninvolved (Nasrollahzade, Mahmoudfakhe, and Rahmani 147).
The style of parenting that I think is most effective is the authoritative style of parenting that is child-centered. This style of parenting allows parents to understand the feelings of their children. In addition, this style allows for the best results in parenting. Parents are also responsible and set standards for the children.
Milgram’s experiment was a social psychology experiment conducted over time by Stanley Milgram. In this experiment, Milgram described the willingness of young male students to obey an authority figure at a learning institution even when the instructions were in conflict with their conscience (Ciccarelli and White 21). The method used in the experiment involved three participants at a time; a volunteer, a Confederate, and the person conducting the experiment (Miller 562).
The volunteer always got the role of a teacher while the confederate was the learner. The teacher was required to make the learner pronounce some word pairs. If done wrongly, the student would administer an electric shock to the learner who supposedly had a heart condition (Miller 561). Several prompts were available to make the teacher continue with electrocution even with increasing voltages. Pre-recorded sounds were played to imitate a learner in pain after the shocks.
In the initial poll, students and psychologists believed only a very small proportion of the teachers would administer the maximum amount of shock. However, the experiment results were different, with 65% of the participating ‘teachers’ administering the 450-volt electric shock (Ciccarelli and White 19). Most of these participants were, however, uncomfortable when administering this shock. Despite 35% not reaching maximum voltage, they did not check on the learner or demand that the experiment is halted.
In one of the classic psychology studies, a schoolteacher taught children on prejudice by dividing them into groups and observing their reactions towards the different groups. In my personal experience, an example of an individual that was discriminated against was a child with dyslexia.
The former schoolmate had trouble reading despite exhibiting normal intelligence in other forms of interactions. When asked to read in class, he would do so with difficulty while the rest of the students laughed and giggled. Most times, new teachers and staff would make fun of this student or punish him without understanding his problem. Colleagues in class would also isolate him and label him as a daft person.
Dyslexia was diagnosed at an early age when the student was still in the lower levels of learning. There were also other dyslexic kids in school but in other classes. In the end, the dyslexic child had to change school and joined an institution for kids with special needs. Individuals with dyslexia can interact with other students in learning institutions.
However, these individuals require special education interventions to ensure that they achieve the same level of education as their counterparts (Skosireva et al. 376). In addition, dyslexic individuals exhibit the same, if not better, work output in organizations. Consequently, they deserve equal employment opportunities. They should also not be discriminated against.
Abnormal behavior is commonly described as the behavior that deviates from what is considered normal in society. Abnormal behavior is dependent on the existing normal standards in society (Ciccarelli and White 13). Individuals behaving differently are considered to have abnormal behavior, as described in abnormal psychology.
Different criteria are used to describe abnormal behavior. First, the behavior has to be in violation of the existing social norms. These social norms are dependent on the age of individuals, society, and social groups. The other determinant of normal behavior is how rare behavior is statistically. Personal distress and maladaptive behavior are also components important in abnormal behavior.
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Abnormal behavior is often difficult to describe in a society. First, the basis of normal behavior is normal society values. Different societies have different norms, and what is normal in one society may be abnormal in another. An individual may consider their behavior normal at a point in time, but this may be considered abnormal in the future. In addition, abnormal behavior in one age group may be accepted in another age group (Ciccarelli and White 18).
Determining abnormal behavior may also be difficult in societies that have different definitions of cultural behavior. Consequently, normal and abnormal behavior is difficult to determine and describe in different societies. Time is also an important factor in the definition of normal and abnormal behavior.
Biomedical therapy is the treatment of psychological disorders that involve the giving of medication or carrying out medical procedures. In biomedical therapy, psychological conditions have biological causes (Ciccarelli and White 27). Biomedical therapies treat psychological disorders by intervening in physical conditions that may be the cause of the disorders (Lizarazo et al. 465).
A global approach to the individual is considered in their treatment. Examples of biomedical therapy include pharmacotherapy, where drugs are used to treat conditions, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The other example of biomedical therapy is psychosurgery, where neurosurgeons work with psychologists to treat medical conditions through removal or surgical alteration of a part of the brain.
Behavioral therapy is a form of psychological intervention that aims to change the behaviors of individuals with the goal of treating psychiatric conditions. In this therapy, the behaviorists enable patient to change behaviors that underlie their condition (Ciccarelli and White 29). Unfavorable behaviors are discouraged and changed into those that are good and favorable (Martin et al. 63).
This therapy is used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorders, PTSD, depression, bipolar disorders, and other conditions. Some of the interventions in behavioral therapy include behavioral management, flooding, modeling, operant conditioning, behavior modification, covert conditioning, and systemic desensitization (Martin et al. 66). The other example is habit reversal training that allows patients to change undesirable behavior.
Ciccarelli, Saundra K., and J. Noland White. Psychology. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2014. Print.
Lizarazo, Natalia, Amanda Munoz Martinez, Maria Santos, and Jonathan Kantar. “A Within-Subjects Evaluation of the Effects of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy on In-Session and Out-Of-Session Client Behavior.” Psychological Record 65.3 (2015): 463-474.
Martin, Paul, Sharon Mackenzie, Siavash Bandarian-Balooch, Arissa Brunelli, Simon Broadley, John Reece, and Peter Goadsby. “Enhancing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Recurrent Headache: Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial.” BMC Neurology 14.1 (2014): 60-76.
Miller, Arthur G. “The Explanatory Value of Milgram’s Obedience Experiments: A Contemporary Appraisal.” Journal of Social Issues 70.3 (2014): 558-573.
Nasrollahzade, Soraya, Hemn Mahmoudfakhe, and Aref Rahmani. “Comparison of Parenting Styles and Mental Health among Students.” International Letters Of Social & Humanistic Sciences 62.1 (2015): 147.
Skosireva, Anna, Patricia O’Campo, Suzanne Zerger, Catharine Chambers, Susan Gapka, and Vicky Stergiopoulos. “Different Faces of Discrimination: Perceived Discrimination among Homeless Adults with Mental Illness in Healthcare Settings.” BMC Health Services Research 14.1 (2014): 376.