The Problem Discussed in the Article and Formulated Hypothesis
The Article Used to Answer Questions: Laiho, Tiina, “Gender and personality in a transformational leadership context.” Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 34, no. 1, 2013, pp. 44 – 66.
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From the onset, the article presents a problem, which concerns leadership and the impact of gender. The article argues that while several scholars have researched transformational leadership and its benefits, few of them have delved into the impact that gender has on facilitating the leadership styles. According to Laiho, gender plays a role in defining the style of leadership that an individual employs to lead an organization (45).
Therefore, having few scholars delve into the issue is a problem that the article presents. From the study of the article, it is clear that the author elucidates the cornerstones associated with the problem that many scholars have avoided. In effect, the author of the article clarifies that only one of the scholars recently introduced a study on women and on how they execute transformational leadership. By indicating that only one scholar introduced the study recently, the article tries to compound its argument that the limited studies on gender and transformational leadership are a problem that requires timely intervention.
The hypothesis that plays out from the article is one that focuses on the impact of gender on personality and leadership styles. Remarkably, the article tries to ascertain whether gender plays a role in determining the type of leadership that an individual uses as well as establishing whether personality is reliant on a person’s gender. All through the article, the theories used and the data collected focus on whether gender should be a matter of consideration about leadership.
From the article, it is clear that the leadership style that dominates is transformational leadership and the author tries to check on the relationship that it has with the concept of gender. To coin its hypothesis the article presents questions that guide the research. It is practical to explain that the questions presented by the article confirm the hypothesis because they revolve around gender and its impact on leadership and personality.
Need for Study and Methodology
The article is essential in modern societies. Stakeholders who are either managing contemporary organizations as well as those who want to champion effective leadership styles find the article very useful. The timely introduction of the article increases its need before potential stakeholders who comprise managers, human rights activists, leaders, as well as employees. Notably, by reading the article, one is in a better position of understanding the value that women and men play in an organization.
The article also reveals the role that gender plays on the personality of an individual. By reading the article, individuals can align their personalities with the right leadership styles that transform organizations towards success. Therefore, the study undertaken by the article is in high demand among several individuals leading various contemporary employees and desire to handle their organizations successfully.
The methodology employed by the article sampled 459 leaders and subordinates who totaled 378. The respondents were informed about the importance of filling the questionnaires, which comprised the main instruments used in data collection with utmost honesty. Moreover, the period that the article used to collect data ranged from 1996 to 2010. The methodology employed also ensured that data collection voluntarily took place and at a time when managers and subordinates were free to fill the questionnaires or answer the questions conveyed using unstructured interviews. Also, the questions were designed in a way that permitted managers to rate themselves along with the guidelines of transformational leadership and gender role.
The questionnaires also accorded the subordinates the chance to rate their leaders to ascertain the credibility of information provided by the respondents. According to Laiho, the results were evaluated based on the similarity between the feedback provided by leaders and their subordinates (50). Thereafter the findings were analyzed and interpreted with the focus of arriving at an informed conclusion.
Summary of the Review of the Literature Regarding the Problem in the Article
The article uses its review in a manner that tries to justify whether women in leadership are different from their male counterparts. The review uses several models such as Vision-Involvement-Persistence (VIP) and Extraversion Intuition-Thinking-Perceiving (ENTP) as well as concepts that include Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to ensure that its research is dependable and well outlined. From the review, it is evident that the issue of women and leadership follows well-elaborated scrutiny.
The review states that before examining the type of leadership employed by individuals, it is primary to look into their gender. According to the Schnackenberg, men have roles that resonate with their gender whereas women have those that are in harmony with their gender (31). Roles such as supervising, directing, and visioning are those that the review classifies to be masculine, while compassion, exemplary leadership, and empathy fall under the feminine category.
The classification of the roles is an act that makes the review utilized by the article succinct and clear. Moreover, the use of models and concepts is one of the factors that make the review to have a clear direction concerning the issue under study. Unlike other poorly done studies, the employment of well-defined questions and useful models that are relevant to the problem under study amplifies the quality of review that an article advances before the potential stakeholders (Storberg-Walker and Haber-Curran 9).
Therefore, the models and concepts go a long way in facilitating the establishment of a review that is systematic. The review also provides definitions of words that can be perplexing to the audience. The review defines words like extraverted, intuition, introverted, and sensing. The definitions are important because the words are instrumental in the assessment of gender roles in leadership and personality. When individuals understand the meaning of these words, the overall relevance of the review and the article augments.
Assumptions, Limitations, and Potential for Future Research
One of the major assumptions that the article demonstrates is the blanket classification of roles as masculine and feminine. The article assumes that women demonstrate feminine leadership skills whereas men display masculine qualities of leadership. The blanket classification of leadership qualities is an assumption because society has men who demonstrate feminine qualities and women who have masculine leadership qualities (Braveman 1). The limitation evident from the study relates to the time that it took to collect data, which is from 1996 to 2010. It is practical to explain that modern societies are very dynamic and ever-changing and, as such, using data collected from 1996 to 2010 to explain issues that affect present societies is a limitation that calls for further research.
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Besides, some of the sources used are outdated, a factor that hampers the quality of the information provided by the article. The limitation demonstrated by the study is a tool that provides an opportunity for additional research. Further research needs to explore the masculine and feminine roles comprehensively and explain that both men and women execute the roles interchangeably. Moreover, the author acknowledges that there is a need to undertake more research that uses several models and concepts as well as that which controls confounding factors (Laiho 44).
Transformational leadership is one of the best styles that can be used to harness success in the modern organization. Notably, while the literature that relates to transformational leadership is immense, little information is available on the effect that gender has on personality and leadership. Scholars have delved into the issue of transformational leadership but stayed away from the impact of personality and gender.
Therefore, the article is instrumental in explicating the role that gender has on leadership qualities demonstrated by male and female managers. Although the research tried to comprehensively cover and address the role of gender in dictating the type of leadership that and individual employs, there is a need to undertake more research on the subject and ascertain that the qualities cuts across male and female genders.
Critique of the Article
Organization of the Article and Outdated Sources
While the article is essential for several stakeholders who want effective leadership, it has drawbacks that make it a subject of criticism. Some of the issues that make the article a subject of criticism include its organization, sources used, and the size. The overall organization of the article is not orderly. The article sets off with a brief abstract and introduces the issue, before proceeding to the review, methodology, findings, and discussion. In organized articles the abstract is well designed, the introduction presents the lead to the subject under study and the review is a composition of past studies and theories.
Notably, the article is devoid of theories that could be useful in advancing the quality of the article, a factor that greatly affects the quality of its information. Another issue that qualifies the article for criticism is the use of outdated sources drafted in 1996, 1996, and 2000. According to Scott, an article needs to employ literature that is in tandem with the issues under study (173). The information collected from these sources does not resonate with modern leadership styles. Therefore, by using the sources, the article qualified to be a subject of criticism.
Overused Sources and the Short Size of the Article
Another weakness evident in the article is source overuse. Right from the introduction section, the article uses several sources to justify an issue. The sources used to affect the flow of information in the article because they take a lot of space that would otherwise be useful in explaining the issue under study. Due to the several sources used, the article has to minimize its size by about six pages. Fundamentally, spending six pages to reference the sources used in an article is an implication that its contents have to be summarized.
Consequently, the size of the article also makes it a subject of criticism. Poor organization and source overuse are among the factors that limit the size of the article. Hussein asserts that short pieces of literature do not provide comprehensive information because they have to summarize their contents (18). The assertion confirms the criticism subjected to the article because several parts of the study do not provide good coverage of the addressed issue. In effect, one has to grapple with summarized information to understand the concepts espoused in the article and the problem that it tries to present.
Braveman, Brent. Leading & Managing Occupational Therapy Services: An Evidence Based Approach. F.A. Davis Company, 2016.
Hussein, Ashatu. “The use of Triangulation in Social Sciences Research: Can Qualitative And Quantitative Methods be Combined?.” Journal of Comparative Social Work, vol. 4, no. 1, 2015, pp. 11-36.
Laiho, Tiina, “Gender and Personality in Transformational Leadership Context.” Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 34, no. 1, 2013, pp. 44 – 66.
Schnackenberg, Heidi. Challenges Facing Female Department Chairs in Contemporary Higher Education: Emerging Research and Opportunities. IGI Global, 2017.
Scott, John. A Matter of Record: Documentary Sources in Social Research. John Wiley & Sons, 2014.
Storberg-Walker, Julia, and Paige Haber-Curran. Theorizing Women and Leadership: New Insights and Contributions from Multiple Perspectives. Information Age Publishing, Inc, 2017.