In order to validate the thinking that the environment, not genetics, has a larger effect on the characteristics of individuals the maze-dull second-generation rats were made to be reared by maze-bright parents and vice-versa.
In this context, it can be seen that Thesis: Gestalt psychology as a discipline has to be viewed as the product of the "Zeitgeist" of a large chunk of the Twentieth Century that was impacted [...]
The paper examines the depth and extent to which Yeonam was ready to go and if he was bound by the norms of the human friendship and association of his era.
The pre-school children, while climbing the ladder of his pre-school years, feel the need of exploration of new dimensions. In order to make a child a successful person in his future life, it would be [...]
In 1948, Skinner was offered a position at Harvard which he accepted and remained at Harvard for the rest of his intellectual career.
Although the concept of the unconscious mind had existed well before Freud began his work, and the concept of hypnosis had been around for at least a century prior to his failure to work with [...]
That is why, one of the main tasks of practitioners, who give lectures for a would-be colleague, is to explain all peculiarities of the chosen path and demonstrate the real state of affairs.
Owing to his persistence and hard work, Erikson managed to make a profound achievement in the field of psychology and earned respect from his colleagues and followers. The importance of social and psychological crises, according [...]
This environment is extremely crucial for the work of any educator as it creates the background for the majority of the procedures and contributes to the increased efficiency of the methods used in the educational [...]
The main principles of Freud's approach explained in An Outline of Psychoanalysis are focused on the "three forces of the psychical apparatus": the id, the ego, and the superego.
A lot of outstanding professionals operated in the sphere of developmental psychology, introducing their unique ideas and contributing to the field with the help of their theories.
Shay and Wheelis argue that the fundamental metaphor of the book is the fact that the change processes in the field are reproduced in the changed process themselves in exceptional and thoughtful psychological counselors.
He did not believe in the existence of God because one of his teachers, a Christian, had tried to gain his goodwill over the concerns he had concerning the world of the dead.
Wundt's published the groundbreaking book "Principles of Physiological Psychology" in 1879 and he was the first person to refer to psychology as a unique field of study.
The history of psychology traces back to the liberal philosophies of Rene Descartes, a French philosopher and mathematician, who espoused the concept of carnal and mind dualism.
Christine Ladd-Franklin's research resulted in the formulation of Ladd-Franklin theory of color sensation. This paper endeavors to discuss Christine Ladd-Franklin's Contribution to the field of psychology Born on December 1, 1847, Christine Ladd-Franklin was the [...]
Skinner's achievements were unique and authentic; they were not reproductions or imitations of other people's work as explained in the social learning theory.
The two main contributions of Washburn to the field of psychology were his studies on the animal mind and development of the motor theory.
He is considered as the establisher of the psychological school of behaviorism. John Watson made a significant input into the scientific psychology of the 20th century.
Each stage unfolds a biologically predetermined sequence in the interaction with social forces and the requirements of the culture, and each represents a critical period of transition in the healthy development of the ego and [...]
Similar to the previous stage, the outcomes in this stage depends on the kind of input that an individual receives from peers, parents and other concerned parties.
He likens the conscious mind to the exposed tip of the iceberg and the unconscious being to the submerged regions of the iceberg.
Even though that from a Christian point of view, there is indeed a number of discursive controversies to the theory of psychoanalysis, there can be little doubt as to the fact that it was specifically [...]
Drives and instincts are connected with the human personal experiences, and the id associated with the human unconscious nature is oriented to pleasure and satisfying the sex instinct and to satisfying the aggression instinct.
Williams adds that in the second phase of the therapy, a client is assessed based on the relationship so far existent with the therapist to determine reaction against the prevailing conditions on the influence of [...]
To most psychologists, the litmus test of a theory is the ability of the theory to predict future events and behaviors among the human beings.
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, self-actualization is the peak of experience when a person reaches understanding and harmony with his/herself and the surrounding people.
The evidence of the needs for love and belonging was the desire of human beings to have families and be recognized by the community members as part of the community.
To understand more about Maslow's hierarchy of needs model, the literature review is created with the purpose to consider the implementation and the theoretical value of the model under discussion.
However, the book under consideration occupies a very special place as it is on the border between the world of scientists and the rest of the world. Thus, one of the central ideas of the [...]
The use of language and manipulation of symbols enables the child to be able to think in absence of the physical objects.
Carl Jung's argument is that the collective unconscious of all human beings is the same and this near death experience is part of it.
This is taken as a restraining factor in the progress of the group since the therapist will have to stop and try to observe the safety of the patients together with his/her own life.
However, Adler felt that Freud's theories were more inclined towards the instinctive and biological aspects of the human personality and failed to consider the societal impact on the same.
In his life, he made significant contributions in the field of psychology. Maslow later attended the University of Wisconsin to study psychology since he had gained interest in the field.
The article is essential in informing the readers about the blindness created in the younger psychologist and psychobiologists about important aspects in the history of psychology.
In his book "Love and Will," May provides a philosophical critique into the concept of love. In his explanation of love, May draws an analogy from the Aristophanes.
With the help of the discoveries made by the greatest psychologists and sociologists, the psychology doctrines have grown from quite primitive ideas of a human being to more complex systems of knowledge about the ways [...]
Due to the high number of contributors to this field, the actual founding 'father of psychology' is disputed. The earthly steed can be tied to the id and the charioteer to the ego.
The process is inborn and it is for this reason that human beings are able to understand and harmonize the various part of the psyche.
He is a believer of the fact that it is possible for every human being to find meaning in their life, despite what they are going through in life.
Malcolm Shepherd Knowles made a significant contribution in the field of psychology and specifically in adult education being one of the fathers of the American adult education.
Dwelling upon the idea of Carl Jung, it is important to state that his analytic theory and ideas related to human mind are different to those developed by such famous psychologists as Freud or Ericson, [...]
In regard to the frame of orientation, Jeff and Ann view the natural world as a place that requires more development. Jeff and Ann have to assimilate and accommodate living in a new environment that [...]
From the above pyramid, Maslow contributed immensely to the field of psychology because he impacted people's perception of psychology by introducing the concept of humanistic psychology.
In 1901 and 1902, James did a series of lectures under the auspices of the Gifford Lecture Series at the University of Edinburgh on Natural Theology the knowledge of God.
The ego is the component of the psyche that interfaces and coordinates the super-ego and the id in the harmonization of the conflicting sexual instincts and cultural sexual constraints in the process of psychosexual development.
Not only is she respected for being able to attain the position of presidency in the American Psychological Association but the fact that she was committed to her work and was able to overcome the [...]
Based on the research he conducted, he also believed that the stated personality traits were directly related to the body types of humans that he gave the names Endomorphy, Mesomorphy and Ectomorphy.
The level of encouragement of children to indulge in game playing and adventure makes them develop the ability to devise projects or the fear of disapproval.
For instance, communities practicing FGM and forced marriages affect the development of a girl child; this is mainly in developing countries.
In the study of human personality, Freud believed that the central part of human nature is as a result of id and the control of human decisions by the superego.
The second layer of the pyramid is the need for safety and security. People in this level are motivated by the need to grow and 'being' needs.