Biology Paper Examples

Biological Effect of Microwave Radiation

Biohazard wastes are infectious materials or materials that are potentially infectious. The most common Biohazard wastes include human body fluids, microbiological wastes, animal wastes, sharp objects, electronic wastes, and wastes that contain radioactive or chemical substances (UC MERCED 1). For this reason, individuals handling Biohazard wastes must ensure that they are either properly treated or […]

Printable organs concepts

The topic of 3-D printable organs very evidently, is starting to receive an increasing amount of attention. The whole mechanism of creating live tissue and organizing cells to form organs seems impossible and amazing. Until recent time, scientists had problems to keep cells in balance and preserve their survival, as there were few issues. Presently, […]

Phyletic Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium Evolution Theory

Evolution is the process by which generations of species undergo some changes in their biological traits over a given period. There are two theories that explain the process of evolution. They include phyletic gradualism and punctuated equilibrium. Scientists maintain that evolution can only happen as described by the theories (National Academy of Sciences 78). Phyletic […]

Human and Animal Production Cloning Concepts

Introductory Paragraph Medical breakthroughs often elicit ambivalent reactions from all quarters of society. Cloning is one such medical technology that has elicited numerous ambivalent reactions. This research paper thus seeks to examine the concept of human and animal reproductive cloning with an aim of investigating the tenets of this concept and the perspective of society […]

Drug Mescaline Peyote

Peyote is a tiny plant that does not have a spine and it grows in arid and semi-arid areas and mostly on soils that are rich in limestone. Psychedelic found within Peyote is known as Mescaline and the drug is common in Texas and Mexico (Tuner, n.d). This paper focuses on the relevance of mescaline […]

The Diffusion of a Cell

Summary The primary goal of this research was to evaluate the effects of cholesterol on diffusion properties. Scholars use multiple methods to show the movement of the cholesterol particle to diffusion point. The use of solvents and fluorescence microscopy aimed to show the biophysical mechanism in the diffusion process. Cholesterol is an important player in […]

The Article Activator Control of Nucleosome Occupancy in Activation and Repression of Transcription

Article Analysis The Authors’ Question The article Activator Control of Nucleosome Occupancy in Activation and Repression of Transcription by Bryant et al. delves on a highly studied area on the relationship between chromatin structure and gene expression (par.1). In this study, the authors assert that the universal activator, namely the Gal4, helps to remove promoter […]

Genetic experimentation and development

Introduction Genetic experimentation and development have the prospect of initiating a number of alterations as well as benefits to the human being. In addition, the genetic developments have the ability of creating new living things, prevent emission of toxic wastes as well as provide cure to various ailments. Further, through the utilization of genetic tools, […]

Genetic modification and testing: ethical considerations

Sciences and in depth knowledge about human and animal genetics has received extensive attention and reached heights that were not expected. Modifications to the genetic information and the types of outcomes have been surprising but at the same time, met with some displeasement. This sort of engineering has resulted in modified foods, animal testing and […]

A Study of “Escherichia Coli”

Bacteria present a world that is constantly under study in the search for better understanding of life and its processes. The cells are being examined in “microfluidic devices” that allow for movement and create an environment to observe the interaction between cells, as well as internal mechanisms and reactions (Mosier & Cady 1). The division […]

Cell Membranes

The cell membrane is a biological layer that acts as a barrier between a cell’s interior and its exterior environment. Cell membranes act in a selectively permeable manner. This means cell membranes have the ability to control the entry and exit of substances in and out of their interior structure. Some organic ions and molecules […]

In Vitro Fertilization and Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis

Introduction In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is a successful treatment for purposes of infertility and in couples who are in need of Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) so as to assess genetic abnormalities of their potential offspring. These two procedures can also be used by couples who do not have fertility problems. In these instances, IVF and […]

Invasive Species

Abstract Some pests and weeds are considered by the Australian government to be of national significance. Most of these species were introduced from other countries and continents. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the Alligator Weed (Alternanthera Philoxeroides) are some of the invasive species which threaten the ecology and several sectors of the Australian economy. This […]

The Cane Toad

Introduction The Cane Toad was introduced from the tropical island of Hawaii in the year 1935 by one of Australia’s bureau, The Sugar Bureau Experiment Station. Cane toads were introduced as a measure to curb the problem of the native cane beetle otherwise known as Domolopedia albohirtum. The toads were first bred in captivity and […]

Inventions and Discoveries

Introduction Invention can be defined as a final result of imagination which could have originated from a mere conception or from experimental researches. Discovery on the other hand is initial or primary acquisition of a given idea or information by an individual. As invention gives credit to the person who performed the act as the […]

Possible Benefits of New Genetics

Introduction There is a lot of controversy attached to the idea of human cloning. For some people, human cloning is ‘ethically wrong’ and for others, it is a ‘repugnant’ and’ morally despicable’ practice. There are various potential benefits attributed to cloning. Emerging testimonies on human cloning have elicited mixed feelings on whether its potential benefits […]

The factors contributing to similarities and differences found in the species composition between two IKMT’s

Introduction Four series of oblique tows were taken with a midwater trawl in the San Pedro and Santa Catalina Basins off Southern California. Comparisons of biomass, numbers, and mean sizes of fish and decapod crustaceans between day and night tows show few significant differences, indicating that daytime net avoidance is not a problem with this […]

Human Responses to Features of Insects and Impact on Media on Image Representation

The fact that most people express their negative attitudes to some insects is culturally and historically predetermined. Most of the fears that people experience are associated with insects and the consequences of dealing with these creatures. However, these biases are premised on the images and experiences of previous cases of encountering insects. In fact, many […]

Safety of Birds in Confinement

Introduction Despite the fact that the appearance of natural structures change, reality will always remains (Honour & Fleming, 2005). In order to create pure reality, it is imperative to reduce natural forms to constant elements of form. Birds, when properly taken care of, will seldom be attacked with any disease. A good practice, therefore, is […]

History Of Biotechnology

Introduction Biotechnology can be defined as a technology that utilizes “biological phenomena for copying and manufacturing various useful substances” (Smith 3). Biotechnology was initially an artisan ability and not a science. This technology involved producing beer, cheese and bread among other related products, where processes were carried out in an accurate manner. These processes were […]

Pets and people

Introduction Love can be considered to be a strong emotional attachment between individuals or animals. It entails displaying attributes such as selfless loyalty, compassion, kindness and affection to others. This is a condition experienced by human beings and animals. Over the years, there have been questions as to whether animals are capable to love. There […]

The Melanin Theory

Melanin theorists purport that black people are more superior to the whites (Cashmore and Jennings 181) because they have greater quantities of melanin. They attribute whites’ alleged “inhumanity” and “inferiority” to lack of melanin. Melanin theorists also maintain that melanin bestows upon people of color some superhuman abilities. The theorists are unanimous that melanin is […]

Vertical Stratification

Stratification is an ecological term referred to various parts of a system that can be broken down into several layers (Hutchinson & Skelly, 2010). In community context, stratification refers to the manner in which life forms are arranged in a vertical array. Ecologists have identified light as a major factor that determines this vertical structure […]

Types of Tress in Alaska

Introduction Alaska remains as one of the most ecologically diverse regions in the globe with key ecosystems that are highly sensitive to both natural and human interference. A closer look at Alaskan forests further reveals a region that holds diverse vegetation with highly varied geologic history and evolutionary progression. The main habitats in Alaska that […]

Cell Culture Technique

Biological advancements have contributed to the improvement of society in various forms. Biomedical research which forms the foundation for spectrum of inventions/discoveries, has its origin in techniques like cell culture. Cell culture involves creating an artificial environment of growing that mimics the natural one in all the characteristical features in a laboratory. So, growing the […]


Discussion Domestication is a process where wild animals and plants are transformed in a genetic state to adjust to certain characteristics which benefit humans. In a simplest sense, it can be described as the early stage of human mastery of wild species of plants and animals. The basic difference between domesticated plants and animals from […]

Introduced Species and Biodiversity

Introduction Biodiversity refers to the sum total of species, ecosystems and genes in a certain location. The term encompasses all spheres of biological systems such as the genetic or molecular sphere, the population sphere, the species, ecosystem and organ spheres, as well. Conversely, an introduced species is one that exists in an area outside of […]

Giraffes Adaptation

Adaption is any alteration in the structure or performance of a creature that makes it more appropriate to its immediate environment (Keller et al., 2009). Every creature is adapted to an environment in its own unique way. It is through adaptation that living things can live in diverse environments. By means of natural selection, animals […]

The Human Genome project and its revolutionary insight to the genetic blue print of the human body

Abstract Human genome is a contemporary scientific revolution that seeks to find the cure for serious human diseases. For many years, incurable diseases have killed many people, but the new discoveries in the cure for these diseases have given hope to those who are suffering from incurable diseases. Human Genome sciences mainly seek to find […]

The Cryo-Electron Microscopy Structure of a complete 30S Translation Initiation Complex from Escherichia coli

Summary In their paper Julian et al (2011) notes that creation of composite structures of 30S is a necessary step in monitoring of gene forms. In the article “The Cryo-Electron Microscopy Structure of a complete 30S Translation Initiation Complex from Escherichia coli” Julian and others utilized Escherichia coli to illustrate the choice, precise start up […]

Bioinformatics: Pathogen Profiling Efforts

Rapid molecular profiling for multi-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) spa typing as a bioinformatics approach is currently being practiced as a dependable method replacing the alternative traditional approaches used for hospital acquired infection control. By applying bioinformatics, microbial genomics are integrated with clinical data to achieve groups of patients who belong to the same outbreak cluster […]

Ethnozoology as a Fundamental Field of Study

Introduction Ethnozoology is the scientific study of the relationships between animals and various ethnicities across the world. Ethnozoology is a fundamental field of study because it enhances understanding of indigenous cultures that rely on hunting and gathering as their dominant economic activity. Ethnozoologists study relationships between animals and varied ethnicities so that they can elucidate […]

Review on “Darwin’s Missing Evidence” by Joel Hagen and H. B. D. Kettlewell

The problems of evolution and its main aspects are discussed not only by biologists and geneticists but also by medical students and the public which is interested in the evolutionary issues. That is why the results of significant researches which were conducted by prominent scientists in the field of genetics and the problems of evolution […]

Ethnobotanical Uses of Plants

Introduction Plants have many uses in people’s lives and are essential in many aspects of human life. In the prehistoric times, man relied on natural plants to satisfy his basic needs such as food, clothing, and shelter. Prior to the development of agriculture and domestication of plants, the hunter-gatherers derived their livelihoods directly from wild […]

Darwin on the Origin of Species

Evolution by natural selection is considered the backbone of biology. It is proposed that modern students should have time to read the literature of naturalists regarding their perception of evolution. This is endorsed by Charles Darwin and Alfred Lussel Wallice. Darwin commenced his superb creativity in evolution by natural selection with the initiative of divergence. […]

Evidence for ancient endosymbiosis

Research question and hypothesis Endosymbioses have remarkably changed the eukaryotic life processes, while it has impacted negligibly on prokaryotic evolution. In this paper by examining the flows of protein families, I try to proof that the double-membrane, gram-negative prokaryotes derived from a symbiosis between an archaic clostridium and actinobacterium. The subsequent taxon has been efficient […]

Functional Analysis of KV1.2 and Paddle Chimera Kv Channels in Planar Lipid Bilayers

Introduction Functional Analysis of KV1.2 and Paddle Chimera Kv Channels in Planar Lipid Bilayers is a scientific article written by Xiao Tao and Roderick MacKinnon and devoted to the role of voltage-dependant K+ channels during the process of shaping electric signals in excitable and nonexcitable cells. The peculiar feature of these channels is that they […]

Interesting Findings on the Brain Development in the Childhood

Introduction Brain is the vital organ coordinating our activities and life. The problem of brain functioning and development has still a lot of areas for research. Nowadays, we have more questions than answers on the problems of brain functioning. However, the scholars presented interesting findings on the brain development in the childhood. The aim of […]