Sources of perchlorate Perchlorate is a chemical that occurs naturally, although it may as well be man-made. In addition, perchlorate can also be found in some fertilizers and in bleach. It has found wide application in the manufacture of fireworks, flares, rocket fuel, and explosives1. Many of the sites where perchlorate can be found occurring […]

Phosphate Removal by Struvite Crystallization

Abstract Human activities continue to threaten the purity of water by releasing pollutants from industries and domestic water usage. When phosphates in aqueous solutions gain access into water bodies, they lead to the abnormal growth of algae, which reduces the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Therefore, phosphates in aqueous solutions must be reduced before the solutions […]

Effects of chemicals

Review of parameters For an article to fit the parameters of primary research toxicology, it must describe the adverse effects of the hazardous substance being studied. The study of adverse effects of the substance could be conducted in vitro with the use of animal models. In addition, the paper should address some gaps in the […]

DDT Target Organs

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine insecticide whose introduction led to the control of malaria in many endemic regions in the world. For instance, malaria was eliminated through the use of DDT in Europe and the US. However, DDT has a slow breakdown, thus it persists in the environment for long. It has been classified under […]

Compare and Contrast of Toxicants

This research paper has compared and contrasted various toxins, which affect the nervous system, endocrine system, and cardiovascular system. Mercury was selected as the toxin affecting both the nervous and cardiovascular systems. Diethylstilbestrol has been selected as the toxin affecting the endocrine system. The paper has also presented the characteristics shared by these toxins and […]

Types of Plastic

Introduction Plastics are found everywhere and have many uses. However, there are some limitations to the use of plastics and one of these is that they cannot withstand a temperature way above 200°C. Plastics that can withstand high temperature are applied with so-called aromatic base. This kind of plastic is exposed to condensation during manufacturing […]

Chloramine Breakdown in Drinking Water and the Possible Consequences: A Research

Introduction: Chloramine As an Alternative Among all the essentials that a human being cannot possibly live without, water takes the first place after oxygen – once deprived of the necessary amount ofH2O and disposed to a long-term drought, a human body stops functioning and starts to disintegrate into nothingness. Luckily enough, water reserves on the […]

Lubricating Oil Extraction Methods

Introduction The extraction of lubricating oils from crude oil is a multistep procedure as mentioned earlier in the paper (Speight, 1980, p.71). The reason behind this is the inability to achieve constant liquid phases as certain temperatures. For that matter, single stage extraction of lubricating oils is difficult. In the ancient times, the extraction process […]

Drug Analysis: Amphetamine and Methamphetamine

Introduction Amphetamines are analogues of β-phenethylamine and have a stimulant effect on the central nervous system. Prolonged use results in addiction and dependence. Changes in the structural framework of the basic amphetamine nucleus results in different forms of amphetamines. Absence of modifications on the aromatic nucleus results in a potent subgroup of amphetamines such as […]

Chemistry in Life

Introduction Chemistry involves more than the mere fact that that it entails the making of new combinations of chemical elements. It makes new combinations of industries and brings together different countries besides the chemical elements. It brings international competition, which results into the development of international cooperation. Chemistry improves everyday life of millions of people […]

The Pollution Within

An American writer decides to take a test to determine the level of foreign substances in his body. Laboratory test results indicate that some substances, some of which are used to reduce flammability of materials, are present in his blood. The level of concentration of these compounds is many times higher than the level that […]

The Effect of Inhibitors and Temperature on Enzyme Reactions

Enzymes are described as biological proteins which accelerate the rate of reaction of a chemical substance, while inhibitors are elements which reduce the speed of catalyzed reaction of enzyme through connecting into the enzyme and jamming the reaction of enzyme (Hunter, 2009, p. 41). Enzymes function in the human body through reducing the activation energy […]

Chemical Spills in Forensic Setting

A chemical leak is characterized by discharge of a chemical compounds. It commonly occurs during haulage, storage, handling and disposal of compounds with chemical characteristics. Spilling of chemicals is a frequent incident in many labs. Necessary steps to clean the spill are extremely imperative due to their perilous nature. Chemical spills may cause immediate peril […]

Chemical engineering

Chemical engineering is an engineering branch which entails the study of life science, physical science, economics and mathematics. It deals with the conversion of chemical and other materials into valuable forms. It is a broad field which is composed of Physics, Biology, Chemistry, Microbiology and Biochemistry. Chemical engineering also deals with wide range of new […]

Liquefied Natural Gas

Hydrocarbons have come to be the most common type of fuels, used in machines throughout the past century. Most machines have been designed to use the most efficient, and easy to get fuels available. On the same note, these hydrocarbons are also useful in domestic uses which include cooking. Hydrocarbons have been the most preferred […]

Silicon Dioxide

Introduction The world is endowed with several natural resources, and silicon dioxide is one of them. Silicon dioxide is available in plenty, and it can easily be found in several parts of the world. Silicon dioxide is often called silica. Because silicon dioxide is plentiful and valuable, many manufacturers use it as a prime raw […]

Chemical Revolution

Chemical revolution involved the conceptual change which followed the development of the oxygen theory by Lavoisier that replaced the then popular phlogiston theory. Several factors contributed to this revolution including Priestley and Cavendish experiments, which proved that air is a mixture of gases rather than a single element as the then conventional understanding. The improvement […]

Methamphetamine (Meth)

Meth is one of the most common existing psychoactive stimulants, whose abuse can lead to acute or chronic physiological and psychological problems. Medically, the drug is an important remedy to obesity, narcolepsy, and ADHD, although inmost cases most users abuse the drug, because of its pleasant effects, for example, increasing of sexual libido, alertness, and […]